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Release of membrane vesicles, a process conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, represents an evolutionary link, and suggests essential functions of a dynamic extracellular vesicular compartment (including exosomes, microparticles or microvesicles and apoptotic bodies). Compelling evidence supports the significance of this compartment in a broad range(More)
INTRODUCTION Microvesicles (MVs), earlier referred to as microparticles, represent a major type of extracellular vesicles currently considered as novel biomarkers in various clinical settings such as autoimmune disorders. However, the analysis of MVs in body fluids has not been fully standardized yet, and there are numerous pitfalls that hinder the correct(More)
INTRODUCTION Although natural autoantibodies make up the majority of circulating immunoglobulins and are also present in high numbers in therapeutically used intravenous immunoglobulin preparations, they have received little attention and their precise role remains largely unknown. An increasing awareness of the importance of posttranslational autoantigen(More)
In recent years the study of extracellular vesicles has gathered much scientific and clinical interest. As the field is expanding, it is becoming clear that better methods for characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles as well as better standards to compare studies are warranted. The goal of the present work was to find improved(More)
INTRODUCTION Similar to matrix metalloproteinases, glycosidases also play a major role in cartilage degradation. Carbohydrate cleavage products, generated by these latter enzymes, are released from degrading cartilage during arthritis. Some of the cleavage products (such as hyaluronate oligosaccharides) have been shown to bind to Toll-like receptors and(More)
Under physiological and pathological conditions, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in the extracellular compartment simultaneously with soluble mediators. We hypothesized that cytokine effects may be modulated by EVs, the recently recognized conveyors of intercellular messages. In order to test this hypothesis, human monocyte cells were incubated(More)
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are showing promise in gene therapy trials and have proven to be extremely efficient biological tools in basic neuroscience research. One major limitation to their widespread use in the neuroscience laboratory is the cost, labor, skill and time-intense purification process of AAV. We have recently shown that AAV can(More)
Increasing number of evidences support the role of glycosylation in the evolution of autoimmunity. We examined carbohydrate-reactive natural autoantibodies systematically for the first time in patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Antibodies reactive to glycosaminoglycans were measured with CovaLink ELISA in the sera of 59 myasthenia patients as well(More)
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