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1. The social structure of a population plays a key role in many aspects of its ecology and biology. It influences its genetic make-up, the way diseases spread through it and the way animals exploit their environment. However, the description of social structure in nonprimate animals is receiving little attention because of the difficulty in abstracting(More)
There has been a long-running debate as to if and how clupeoid fish, such as herring (Clupea sp.), respond to anthropogenic sound. Anatomical and physiological investigations have shown that members of the clupeoid suborder have highly developed hearing extending into ultrasonic frequencies and behavioural studies suggest that they respond to many sounds.(More)
The commercial importance of Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea pallasii and Clupea harengus) has ensured that much of their biology has received attention. However, their sound production remains poorly studied. We describe the sounds made by captive wild-caught herring. Pacific herring produce distinctive bursts of pulses, termed Fast Repetitive Tick(More)
Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern(More)
Cost pressures, new payment models, and demographic trends are creating a global economic crisis as health systems struggle to care for an aging population of sicker patients. Funds available for healthcare are constrained, and they're being wasted by inefficient, uncoordinated healthcare services. Across the nations of the OECD, health expenditures consume(More)
A. Statement of the problem and research objectives Globalization of the nitrogen cycle In the last century, humans have significantly altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, resulting in a dramatic increase in the rate at which " fixed " (or biologically active) N is created globally. The magnitude and scale of this increase has been remarkable: since 1970(More)
The trophic interactions of sea urchins are known to be the agents of phase shifts in benthic marine habitats such as tropical and temperate reefs. In temperate reefs, the grazing activity of sea urchins has been responsible for the destruction of kelp forests and the formation of 'urchin barrens', a rocky habitat dominated by crustose algae and encrusting(More)
Marine mammals use vocalisations for a number of purposes: in locating food and underwater obstacles, and to maintain contact with members of their family group. These sounds are loud in comparison with the ambient background, but are subject to masking due to underwater noise sources such as tidal turbines. We developed a model of animal movement which(More)
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