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1. The social structure of a population plays a key role in many aspects of its ecology and biology. It influences its genetic make-up, the way diseases spread through it and the way animals exploit their environment. However, the description of social structure in nonprimate animals is receiving little attention because of the difficulty in abstracting(More)
Recent studies have shown that some clupeid fishes, including shad and menhaden, can detect ultrasound (sound with frequencies higher than 20 kHz) and actively avoid it. However, other clupeids, including sardines and anchovies, do not detect ultrasound. The hearing abilities of herring are of particular interest because of their commercial importance, our(More)
There has been a long-running debate as to if and how clupeoid fish, such as herring (Clupea sp.), respond to anthropogenic sound. Anatomical and physiological investigations have shown that members of the clupeoid suborder have highly developed hearing extending into ultrasonic frequencies and behavioural studies suggest that they respond to many sounds.(More)
The commercial importance of Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea pallasii and Clupea harengus) has ensured that much of their biology has received attention. However, their sound production remains poorly studied. We describe the sounds made by captive wild-caught herring. Pacific herring produce distinctive bursts of pulses, termed Fast Repetitive Tick(More)
Marine mammals use vocalisations for a number of purposes: in locating food and underwater obstacles, and to maintain contact with members of their family group. These sounds are loud in comparison with the ambient background, but are subject to masking due to underwater noise sources such as tidal turbines. We developed a model of animal movement which(More)
A. Statement of the problem and research objectives Globalization of the nitrogen cycle In the last century, humans have significantly altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, resulting in a dramatic increase in the rate at which " fixed " (or biologically active) N is created globally. The magnitude and scale of this increase has been remarkable: since 1970(More)
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