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One symbolic (rule-based inductive learning) and one connectionist (neural network) machine learning technique were used to reconstruct muscle activation patterns from kinematic data measured during normal human walking at several speeds. The activation patterns (or desired outputs) consisted of surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from the(More)
Surface functional electrical stimulation results in stimulation of cutaneous receptors and discomfort. The degree of non-uniformity of current distribution in the cutaneous layers in the vicinity of the electrode may influence the sensation experienced. This paper describes the effects on sensation of a thin, high impedance electrode designed to reduce the(More)
Functional electrical stimulation is commonly used to correct drop foot following stroke or multiple sclerosis. This technique is successful for many patients, but previous studies have shown that a significant minority have difficulty identifying correct sites to place the electrodes in order to produce acceptable foot movement. Recently there has been(More)
Discomfort experienced during surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) is thought to be partly a result of localized high current density in the skin underneath the stimulating electrode. This article describes a finite element (FE) model to predict skin current density distribution in the region of the electrode during stimulation and its(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented(More)
Many biomechanical and medical analyses rely on the availability of reliable body segment parameter estimates. Current techniques typically take many manual measurements of the human body, in conjunction with geometric models or regression equations. However, such techniques are often criticised. 3D scanning offers many advantages, but current systems are(More)
This paper presents a new approach to gait analysis and parameter estimation from a single miniaturized ear-worn sensor embedded with a triaxial accelerometer. Singular spectrum analysis combined with the longest common subsequence algorithm has been used as a basis for gait parameter estimation. It incorporates information from all axes of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the feasibility of unsupervised community use of an array-based automated setup functional electrical stimulator for current foot-drop functional electrical stimulation (FES) users. DESIGN Feasibility study. SETTING Gait laboratory and community use. PARTICIPANTS Participants (N=7) with diagnosis of unilateral foot-drop of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of using a novel form of multichannel electrical stimulation, termed Sensory Barrage Stimulation (SBS) for the treatment of spasticity affecting the elbow flexor muscles and to compare this with conventional single-channel TENS stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Altogether ten participants with spasticity of the flexor(More)
Falls that occur as a result of a slip are one of the leading causes of injuries, particularly in the elderly population. Previous studies have focused on slips that occur on a flat surface. Slips on a laterally sloping surface are important and may be related to different mechanisms of balance recovery. This type of slip might result in different gait(More)