Ben Shneiderman

Learn More
Visualization: The use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of data to amplify cognition. (6) Cognition is the acquisition or use of knowledge. This definition has the virtue of focusing as much on the purpose of visualization as the means. Hamming (1973) saud, “the purpose of computation is insight, not numbers.” Likewise for(More)
This paper describes a novel method for the visualization of hierarchically structured information. The Tree-Map visualization technique makes 100% use of the available display space, mapping the full hierarchy onto a rectangular region in a space-filling manner. This efficient use of space allows very large hierarchies to be displayed in their entirety and(More)
This paper offers new principles for visual information seeking (VIS). A key concept is to support browsing, which is distinguished from familiar query composition and information retrieval because of its emphasis on rapid filtering to reduce result sets, progressive refinement of search parameters, continuous reformulation of goals, and visual scanning to(More)
The traditional approach to representing tree structures is as a rooted, directed graph with the root node at the top of the page and children nodes below the parent node with lines connecting them (Figure 1). Knuth (1968, p. 305-313) has a long discussion about this standard representation, especially why the root is at the top and he offers several(More)
Billions of people participate in online social activities. Most users participate as readers of discussion boards, searchers of blog posts, or viewers of photos. A fraction of users become contributors of user-generated content by writing consumer product reviews, uploading travel photos, or expressing political opinions. Some users move beyond such(More)
Treemaps, a space-filling method for visualizing large hierarchical data sets, are receiving increasing attention. Several algorithms have been previously proposed to create more useful displays by controlling the aspect ratios of the rectangles that make up a treemap. While these algorithms do improve visibility of small items in a single layout, they(More)
Considers how dynamic queries allow users to "fly through" databases by adjusting widgets and viewing the animated results. In studies, users reacted to this approach with an enthusiasm more commonly associated with video games. Adoption requires research into retrieval and display algorithms and user-interface design. The author discusses how experts may(More)
LifeLines provide a general visualization environment for personal histories that can be applied to medical and court records, professional histories and other types of biographical data. A one screen overview shows multiple facets of the records. Aspects, for example medical conditions or legal cases, are displayed as individual time lines, while icons(More)