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The reactive thiol in cysteine is used for coupling maleimide linkers in the generation of antibody conjugates. To assess the impact of the conjugation site, we engineered cysteines into a therapeutic HER2/neu antibody at three sites differing in solvent accessibility and local charge. The highly solvent-accessible site rapidly lost conjugated(More)
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate in clinical development for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive cancers. Herein, we describe a series of studies to assess T-DM1 absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) in rats as well as to assess human exposure to T-DM1 catabolites.(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces hypotension in normotensive subjects, which is considered to be a major side effect for treatment of ischemic diseases. However, the hypotensive effect of VEGF has not been investigated in the setting of hypertension. This study determined effects of VEGF on hemodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and release of NO(More)
PURPOSE Trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) comprising the cytotoxic agent DM1 conjugated to trastuzumab with a stable linker. Thrombocytopenia was the dose-limiting toxicity in the phase I study, and grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia occurred in up to 13% of patients receiving T-DM1 in phase III studies. We investigated the mechanism(More)
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are designed to combine the exquisite specificity of antibodies to target tumor antigens with the cytotoxic potency of chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition to the general chemical stability of the linker, a thorough understanding of the relationship between ADC composition and biological disposition is necessary to ensure that(More)
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody–drug conjugate (ADC) therapeutic for treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive cancers. The T-DM1 dose product contains a mixture of drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) moieties whereby the small molecule DM1 is chemically conjugated to trastuzumab antibody. The pharmacokinetics (PK)(More)
Modifying the capecitabine dosing schedule from 14 days on, 7 days off (14/7) to 7 days on, 7 days off (7/7) may enable higher doses and improved antitumor efficacy in colorectal cancer xenografts. Capecitabine 14/7 (267 or 400 mg/kg) and 7/7 (467 or 700 mg/kg) schedules in doublet and triplet combinations with optimally dosed bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) and(More)
3A5 is a novel antibody that binds repeated epitopes within CA125, an ovarian tumor antigen that is shed into the circulation. Binding to shed antigen may limit the effectiveness of therapeutic antibodies because of unproductive immune complex (IC) formation and/or altered antibody distribution. To evaluate this possibility, we characterized the impact of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE, a cytotoxic agent), upon releasing from valine-citrulline-MMAE (vc-MMAE) antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), is expected to behave like small molecules. Therefore, evaluating the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential associated with MMAE is important in the clinical development of ADCs. The objective of(More)
Off-target binding can significantly affect the pharmacokinetics (PK), tissue distribution, efficacy and toxicity of a therapeutic antibody. Herein we describe the development of a humanized anti- fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) antibody as a potential therapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A chimeric anti FGFR4 monoclonal antibody(More)