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Cyanobacteria have evolved a significant environmental adaptation, known as a CO(2)-concentrating-mechanism (CCM), that vastly improves photosynthetic performance and survival under limiting CO(2) concentrations. The CCM functions to transport and accumulate inorganic carbon actively (Ci; HCO(3)(-), and CO(2)) within the cell where the Ci pool is utilized(More)
Cyanobacteria probably exhibit the widest range of diversity in growth habitats of all photosynthetic organisms. They are found in cold and hot, alkaline and acidic, marine, freshwater, saline, terrestrial, and symbiotic environments. In addition to this, they originated on earth at least 2.5 billion years ago and have evolved through periods of dramatic O2(More)
The growth and survival of juvenile Haliotis rubra, when fed with the diatom Navicula sp. cultured in f/2 medium containing combined nitrogen at 24.71 mg NO3-N L−1 (high), 12.35 mg NO3-N L−1 (standard) or 2.47 mg NO3-N L−1 (low), were compared in a 33-day trial. The alga in the low nitrogen medium contained 37% less total amino acid than that in the high(More)
The concentrations of free amino acids were measured in whole claw muscle, single fibres and haemolymph of Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor, during the intermoult stage. The average total pool of amino acids in short-sarcomere fibres (179 mmol kg(-1)) was 60% greater than in long-sarcomere fibres, due to higher concentrations of alanine,(More)
The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and(More)
Recent advances in computational hardware, software and algorithms enable simulations of protein-ligand complexes to achieve timescales during which complete ligand binding and unbinding pathways can be observed. While observation of such events can promote understanding of binding and unbinding pathways, it does not alone provide information about the(More)
Alzheimer's disease is a representative age-related neurodegenerative disease that could result in loss of memory and cognitive deficiency. However, the precise onset time of Alzheimer's disease affecting neuronal circuits and the mechanisms underlying the changes are not clearly known. To address the neuroanatomical changes during the early pathologic(More)
A neural circuit is a structural-functional unit of achieving particular information transmission and processing, and have various inputs, outputs and molecular phenotypes. Systematic acquisition and comparative analysis of the molecular features of neural circuits are crucial to elucidating the operating mechanisms of brain function. However, no efficient,(More)
Critical systems require assurance that key security, safety or mission requirements are met. Tools are necessary to provide this assurance. The HiVe Writer supports model-based documentation for complex critical systems. The HiVe Writer forms the functional foundation for the ambitious HiVe (Hierarchical Verification Environment) project which aims to(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of(More)