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Cyanobacteria have evolved a significant environmental adaptation, known as a CO(2)-concentrating-mechanism (CCM), that vastly improves photosynthetic performance and survival under limiting CO(2) concentrations. The CCM functions to transport and accumulate inorganic carbon actively (Ci; HCO(3)(-), and CO(2)) within the cell where the Ci pool is utilized(More)
Cyanobacteria probably exhibit the widest range of diversity in growth habitats of all photosynthetic organisms. They are found in cold and hot, alkaline and acidic, marine, freshwater, saline, terrestrial, and symbiotic environments. In addition to this, they originated on earth at least 2.5 billion years ago and have evolved through periods of dramatic O2(More)
The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and(More)
Recent advances in computational hardware, software and algorithms enable simulations of protein-ligand complexes to achieve timescales during which complete ligand binding and unbinding pathways can be observed. While observation of such events can promote understanding of binding and unbinding pathways, it does not alone provide information about the(More)
There's no doubt that green is in and that companies have begun to notice how computers actually do use up resources—they may not produce black smoke, but they sure do spend a lot of time converting expensive electricity into expensive and annoying heat. And, from an IT perspective, many of the things that go into being greener are easy to verbalize but(More)
Alzheimer's disease is a representative age-related neurodegenerative disease that could result in loss of memory and cognitive deficiency. However, the precise onset time of Alzheimer's disease affecting neuronal circuits and the mechanisms underlying the changes are not clearly known. To address the neuroanatomical changes during the early pathologic(More)
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