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As mobile computing requires more computation as well as communication activities, energy efficiency becomes the most critical issue for battery-operated mobile devices. Specifically, in ad hoc networks where each node is responsible for forwarding neighbor nodes' data packets, care has to be taken not only to reduce the overall energy consumption of all(More)
Although establishing correct and efficient routes is an important design issue in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a more challenging goal is to provide energy efficient routes because mobile nodes' operation time is the most critical limiting factor. This article surveys and classifies the energy-aware routing protocols proposed for MANETs. They minimize(More)
The field of wireless networking has received unprecedented attention from the research community during the last decade due to its great potential to create new horizons for communicating beyond the Internet. Wireless LANs (WLANs) based on the IEEE 802.11 standard have become prevalent in public as well as residential areas, and their importance as an(More)
Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The(More)
Sensor networking is an important first-line component in any structural health monitoring (SHM) application. We present how an interdisciplinary team of structural, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineers are tackling a large-scale civil infrastructure SHM application by proposing a new variant on sensor networking. Most sensor arrays are typically(More)
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) provide communication services in the vicinity of the human body. Since the WBAN services consists of both medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications, MAC protocols in the WBAN should be designed considering flexibility and different characteristics between medical and CE applications. In this paper, we propose a(More)
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