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This study examined age differences in error processing and reinforcement learning. We were interested in whether the electrophysiological correlates of error processing, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the feedback-related negativity (FRN), reflect learning-related changes in younger and older adults. To do so, we applied a probabilistic learning(More)
In this study we investigated age-related and individual differences in habitual (model-free) and goal-directed (model-based) decision-making. Specifically, we were interested in three questions. First, does age affect the balance between model-based and model-free decision mechanisms? Second, are these age-related changes due to age differences in working(More)
This study investigates age differences in the flexible adaptation to changing demands on task switching and conflict processing. We applied a cued task-switching version of the Stroop task and manipulated the ratio of conflict trials. During task preparation, the P300 varied as a function of conflict ratio and a later positive component was larger for(More)
We examined age differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with attentional control of task-set selection and response interference by means of a cue-based switching paradigm in which participants performed the color or word Stroop task. The results of ERPs in the cue interval indicated that P3 latencies were slowed for older adults,(More)
We combined a feedback-based learning task with a recognition memory paradigm to investigate how reward-based learning affects the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in younger and older adults. We found that positive, but not negative learning improves memory and results in an increased early ERP old-new effect, which is(More)
In this paper, we review the current literature to highlight relations between age-associated declines in dopaminergic and serotonergic neuromodulation and adult age differences in adaptive goal-directed behavior. Specifically, we focus on evidence suggesting that deficits in neuromodulation contribute to older adults' behavioral disadvantages in learning(More)
This study examined developmental differences in the ERP correlates of internal and external error processing (ERN and FRN) during learning. A probabilistic learning task was applied in which feedback validity was manipulated. The behavioral data showed similar accuracy for children and adults when feedback was valid, whereas age differences were obtained(More)
We examined whether older adults differ from younger adults in how they learn from rewarding and aversive outcomes. Human participants were asked to either learn to choose actions that lead to monetary reward or learn to avoid actions that lead to monetary losses. To examine age differences in the neurophysiological mechanisms of learning, we applied a(More)
In this study, we investigated whether older adults learn more from bad than good choices than younger adults and whether this is reflected in the error-related negativity (ERN). We applied a feedback-based learning task with two learning conditions. In the positive learning condition, participants could learn to choose responses that lead to monetary(More)
Costs of switching between tasks may disappear when subjects are able to learn associations between tasks, stimuli, and responses (cf. Rogers, R. D., & Monsell, S. (1995). Costs of a predictable switch between simple cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124, 207-231). The first aim of this study was to examine this possibility by(More)