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The use of fossil fuels is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment that have already exceeded the “dangerously high” threshold of 450 ppm CO2-e. To achieve environmental and economic sustainability, fuel production processes are required that are not only renewable, but also(More)
Photosystem II (PSII) complexes, isolated from spinach and the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, were characterized by electron microscopy and single-particle image-averaging analyses. Oxygen-evolving core complexes from spinach and Synechococcus having molecular masses of about 450 kDa and dimensions of approximately 17.2 x 9.7 nm showed(More)
Membranes enriched in photosystem II were isolated from spinach and further solubilised using n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (OctGlc) and n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (DodGlc2). The OctGlc preparation had high rates of oxygen evolution and when subjected to size-exclusion HPLC and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, in the presence of DodGlc2, separated(More)
Photosystem II core dimers (450 kDa) and monomers (230 kDa) consisting of CP47, CP43, the D1 and D2 proteins, the extrinsic 33-kDa subunit, and the low molecular weight polypeptides PsbE, PsbF, PsbH, PsbI, PsbK, PsbL, PsbTc, and PsbW were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The photosystem II core dimers were treated with phospholipase A2(More)
A dimeric photosystem II light-harvesting II super complex (PSII-LHCII SC), isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, was previously structurally characterized [Boekema, E. J., Hankamer, B., Bald, D., Kruip, J., Nield, J., Boonstra, A. F., Barber, J. & Rögner, M. (1995) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 175-179]. This PSII-LHCII SC bound the 33-kDa(More)
Here we report the first three-dimensional structure of a higher plant photosystem II core dimer determined by electron crystallography at a resolution sufficient to assign the organization of its transmembrane helices. The locations of 34 transmembrane helices in each half of the dimer have been deduced, 22 of which are assigned to the major subunits D1(More)
Recently 3D structural models of the photosystem II (PSII) core dimer complexes of higher plants (spinach) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus) have been derived by electron [Rhee et al. (1998) Nature 396, 283-286; Hankamer et al. (2001) J. Struct. Biol., in press] and X-ray [Zouni et al. (2001) Nature 409, 739-743] crystallography respectively. The(More)
Climate change mitigation, economic growth and stability, and the ongoing depletion of oil reserves are all major drivers for the development of economically rational, renewable energy technology platforms. Microalgae have re-emerged as a popular feedstock for the production of biofuels and other more valuable products. Even though integrated microalgal(More)
Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to split water (H2O) into protons (H+), electrons (e-), and oxygen. A select group of photosynthetic microorganisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has evolved the additional ability to redirect the derived H+ and e- to drive hydrogen (H2) production via the chloroplast hydrogenases(More)