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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Treatment of HCC is complicated by the fact that the disease is often diagnosed at an advanced stage when it is no longer amenable to curative surgery, and current systemic chemotherapeutics are mostly inefficacious. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a class III histone deacetylase that is(More)
Aldose reductase (AR) has been implicated in osmoregulation in the kidney because it reduces glucose to sorbitol, which can serve as an osmolite. Under hyperosmotic stress, transcription of this gene is induced to increase the enzyme level. This mode of osmotic regulation of AR gene expression has been observed in a number of nonrenal cells as well,(More)
To study the relationship between the aldose reductase gene and diabetic complications, an (A-C)n dinucleotide repeat sequence 2.1 kb upstream of the transcription start site of this gene was identified and studied. There are seven alleles at this locus with a polymorphism information content of 0.73 and a heterozygosity of 0.77 among the Chinese population(More)
Kidney cells, especially the epithelial cells lining the collecting tubules in the inner medulla, are constantly exposed to concentrated urine. They are protected from the osmotic effect of high levels of sodium ion and urea by accumulating compatible osmolytes such as sorbitol, betaine, and myo-inositol. These osmolytes are involved in maintaining cell(More)
When cells are challenged by hyperosmotic stress, one of the crucial adaptive responses is the expression of osmoprotective genes that are responsible for raising the intracellular level of compatible osmolytes such as sorbitol, betaine, and myo-inositol. This is achieved by the activation of the transcription factor called OREBP (also known as TonEBP or(More)
OREBP (osmotic response element-binding protein), also called TonEBP or NFAT5, is thought to induce the expression of genes that increase the accumulation of organic osmolytes to protect cells against a hypertonic environment. To investigate the consequences of lacking OREBP activity, transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress OREBPdn (dominant negative form of(More)
The sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter (NaDC1) has a proposed function of reabsorbing various Krebs cycle intermediates in the kidney and the small intestine. Since Krebs cycle intermediates have been suggested to be important for renal cell survival and recovery after hypoxia and reoxygenation, the transporter may play a role in the recovery of(More)
Bismuth compounds are widely used for the treatment of peptic ulcers and Helicobacter pylori infections. It has been suggested that enzyme inhibition plays an important role in the antibacterial activity of bismuth towards this bacterium. Urease, an enzyme that converts urea into ammonia and carbonic acid, is crucial for colonization of the acidic(More)
Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) has been implicated in regulating several genes that are thought to be neuroprotective in ischemic injury. Because of the embryonic lethality of NFAT5 knockout (NFAT5(-/-)) mice, the heterozygous (NFAT5(+/-)) mice were used to study the in vivo role of NFAT5 in hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) condition. The NFAT5(+/-)(More)
The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, regulates the hypertonicity-induced expression of a battery of genes crucial for the adaptation of mammalian cells to extracellular hypertonic stress. The activity of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated at multiple levels, including(More)