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BACKGROUND Ambient temperature is an important determinant of daily mortality that is of interest both in its own right and as a confounder of other determinants investigated using time-series regressions, in particular, air pollution. The temperature-mortality relationship is often found to be substantially nonlinear and to persist (but change shape) with(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVES We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality in a Dutch cohort. METHODS We used data from an(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies on the association between lung cancer and air pollution have investigated mortality. There have been few studies of lung cancer incidence. METHODS We used data from the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer for 114,378 subjects with follow-up from September 1986 to December 1997. Exposure to black smoke, nitrogen(More)
OBJECTIVES To alleviate traffic congestion in Central London, the Mayor introduced the Congestion Charging Scheme (CCS) in February 2003. We modelled the impact of the CCS on levels of traffic pollutants, life expectancy and socioeconomic inequalities. METHODS Annual average NO(2) and PM(10) were modelled using an emission-dispersion model. We assumed the(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence suggests that exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with adverse health effects. Little is known, however, about which components of the particulate mixture (size, number, source, toxicity) are most relevant to health. We investigated associations of a range of particle metrics with daily deaths and hospital(More)
BACKGROUND Fibrous tremolite is a widespread amphibole asbestiform mineral, airborne fibres of which constitute an environmental hazard in Libby, Montana, northern California, and elsewhere. AIMS To determine excess risk from lung cancer, mesothelioma, and all-cause mortality in a cohort of men exposed to tremolite, but no other form of asbestos. (More)
BACKGROUND Mortality increases with hot weather, although the extent to which lives are shortened is rarely quantified. We compare the extent to which short-term mortality displacement can explain heat deaths in Delhi, São Paulo, and London given contrasting demographic and health profiles. METHODS We examined time-series of daily mortality data in(More)
We investigated the relationship between environmental temperature and reported Salmonella infections in 10 European populations. Poisson regression adapted for time-series data was used to estimate the percentage change in the number of cases associated with a 1 degree C increase in average temperature above an identified threshold value. We found, on(More)
BACKGROUND We estimated the effects of rainfall and temperature on the number of non-cholera diarrhoea cases and identified population factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS Weekly rainfall, temperature and number of hospital visits for non-cholera diarrhoea were analysed by(More)
We analyzed data from a survey of occupational and other factors in pregnancy to assess the effects of cigarette, alcohol, and coffee consumption on pregnancy outcome. The risk of low birth weight for gestational age was found to increase substantially with smoking. Occasional consumers of alcohol had a slightly reduced risk relative to total abstainers. In(More)