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BACKGROUND Ambient temperature is an important determinant of daily mortality that is of interest both in its own right and as a confounder of other determinants investigated using time-series regressions, in particular, air pollution. The temperature-mortality relationship is often found to be substantially nonlinear and to persist (but change shape) with(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVES We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality in a Dutch cohort. METHODS We used data from an(More)
Energy used in dwellings is an important target for actions to avert climate change. Properly designed and implemented, such actions could have major co-benefits for public health. To investigate, we examined the effect of hypothetical strategies to improve energy efficiency in UK housing stock and to introduce 150 million low-emission household cookstoves(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies on the association between lung cancer and air pollution have investigated mortality. There have been few studies of lung cancer incidence. METHODS We used data from the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer for 114,378 subjects with follow-up from September 1986 to December 1997. Exposure to black smoke, nitrogen(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence suggests that exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with adverse health effects. Little is known, however, about which components of the particulate mixture (size, number, source, toxicity) are most relevant to health. We investigated associations of a range of particle metrics with daily deaths and hospital(More)
A cohort of 406 men employed before 1963 for at least one year in a vermiculite mine in Montana was followed up until July 1983. The vermiculite ore as fed to the mill contained 4-6% of amphibole fibre in the tremolite series. Vital status was established in all but one of the 406 and death certificates were obtained and coded for 163 of the 165 men who(More)
BACKGROUND We estimated the effects of rainfall and temperature on the number of non-cholera diarrhoea cases and identified population factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS Weekly rainfall, temperature and number of hospital visits for non-cholera diarrhoea were analysed by(More)
BACKGROUND This study describes heat- and cold-related mortality in 12 urban populations in low- and middle-income countries, thereby extending knowledge of how diverse populations, in non-OECD countries, respond to temperature extremes. METHODS The cities were: Delhi, Monterrey, Mexico City, Chiang Mai, Bangkok, Salvador, São Paulo, Santiago, Cape Town,(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Heat and cold have been associated with increased mortality, independently of seasonal trends, but details are little known. This study explores associations between mortality and temperature in two European capitals-Sofia and London-using four years of daily deaths, air pollution, and weather data. DESIGN Generalised additive models were(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether there is an association between risk of congenital anomaly and annual ward level exposure to air pollution in England during the 1990s. METHODS A geographical study was conducted across four regions of England using population-based congenital anomaly registers, 1991-1999. Exposure was measured as 1996 annual mean(More)