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Understanding the cell-cell interactions that control CNS development and function has long been limited by the lack of methods to cleanly separate neural cell types. Here we describe methods for the prospective isolation and purification of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes from developing and mature mouse forebrain. We used FACS(More)
Dead cells are observed in many developing animal tissues, but the causes of these normal cell deaths are mostly unknown. We show that about 50% of oligodendrocytes normally die in the developing rat optic nerve, apparently as a result of a competition for limiting amounts of survival signals. Both platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth(More)
We showed previously that oligodendrocytes and their precursors require continuous signalling by protein trophic factors to avoid programmed cell death in culture. Here we show that three classes of such trophic factors promote oligodendrocyte survival in vitro: (1) insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), (2) neurotrophins, particularly(More)
Na(v)1.6 is the main sodium channel isoform at adult nodes of Ranvier. Here, we show that Na(v)1.2 and its beta2 subunit, but not Na(v)1.6 or beta1, are clustered in developing central nervous system nodes and that clustering of Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.6 is differentially controlled. Oligodendrocyte-conditioned medium is sufficient to induce clustering of(More)
Vascular endothelial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) form a barrier that restricts the movement of molecules and ions between the blood and the brain. This blood-brain barrier (BBB) is crucial to ensure proper neuronal function and protect the CNS from injury and disease. Transplantation studies have demonstrated that the BBB is not intrinsic to(More)
Motion detection is an essential component of visual processing. On-Off direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs) detect objects moving along specific axes of the visual field due to their precise retinal circuitry. The brain circuitry of On-Off DSGCs, however, is largely unknown. We report a mouse with GFP expressed selectively by the(More)
Here, we describe a novel mechanism for the rapid regulation of surface levels of the neurotrophin receptor TrkB. Unlike nodose ganglion neurons, both retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and spinal motor neurons (SMNs) in culture display only low levels of surface TrkB, though high levels are present intracellularly. Within minutes of depolarization or cAMP(More)
Although astrocytes constitute nearly half of the cells in our brain, their function is a long-standing neurobiological mystery. Here we show by quantal analyses, FM1-43 imaging, immunostaining, and electron microscopy that few synapses form in the absence of glial cells and that the few synapses that do form are functionally immature. Astrocytes increase(More)
During development, the formation of mature neural circuits requires the selective elimination of inappropriate synaptic connections. Here we show that C1q, the initiating protein in the classical complement cascade, is expressed by postnatal neurons in response to immature astrocytes and is localized to synapses throughout the postnatal CNS and retina.(More)
The establishment of neural circuitry requires vast numbers of synapses to be generated during a specific window of brain development, but it is not known why the developing mammalian brain has a much greater capacity to generate new synapses than the adult brain. Here we report that immature but not mature astrocytes express thrombospondins (TSPs)-1 and -2(More)