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Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) modulates the expression of liver-specific genes that control the production (e.g. apolipoprotein [apo] A-I and apo B) and clearance (e.g. apo C-III) of plasma lipoproteins. We reported that the CoA thioesters of amphipathic carboxylic hypolipidemic drugs (e.g. clofibric acid analogues currently used for(More)
An oral load of 20 mg/kg galactose produces significant changes in the 31P magnetic resonance spectrum of the liver of a galactosemic patient. The peak at 5.2 ppm (which includes inorganic phosphate and galactose-1-phosphate) increased on two occasions to about twice its original size 60 min after galactose administration. An oral load of 10 mg/kg galactose(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) activity is modulated by natural and xenobiotic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA ligands as a function of their chain length, unsaturation, and substitutions. The acyl-CoA site of HNF-4alpha is reported here to consist of the E-F domain, to bind long-chain acyl-CoAs but not the respective free acids, and to(More)
Mitochondria uncoupling by fatty acids in vivo is still questionable, being confounded by their dual role as substrates for oxidation and as putative genuine uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. To dissociate between substrate and the uncoupling activity of fatty acids in oxidative phosphorylation, the uncoupling effect was studied here using a(More)
Adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid reesterification by liver and adipose tissue were investigated in rats fasted for 15 h under basal and calorigenic conditions. The fatty acid flux initiated by adipose fat lipolysis in the fasted rat is mostly futile and is characterized by reesterification of 57% of lipolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) back into adipose(More)
The antidiabetic efficacy of first-line insulin sensitizers (e.g., metformin, glitazones) is accounted for by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) activate AMPK, but their putative antidiabetic efficacy is masked by their beta-oxidized or esterified lipid products. Substituted alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids of(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) modulates metabolic efficiency by controlling the coupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, its uncoupling mode of action is still enigmatic. Treatment of Jurkat or GH3 cells with T3 is reported here to result in limited, Cyclosporin A-sensitive mitochondrial depolarization, conforming to low conductance gating of(More)
Beta,beta'-methyl-substituted hexadecanedioic acid (MEDICA 16) consists of a nonmetabolizable long-chain fatty acid designed to probe the effect exerted by fatty acids on insulin sensitivity. The effect of MEDICA 16 was evaluated in insulin-resistant Zucker (fa/fa) rats in terms of liver, muscle, and adipose tissue response to clamped euglycemic(More)
The calorigenic-thermogenic activity of thyroid hormone (T3) has long been ascribed to uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, the mode of action of T3 in promoting mitochondrial proton leak is still unresolved. Mitochondrial uncoupling by T3 is reported here to be transduced in vivo in rats and in cultured Jurkat cells by gating of(More)
The putative role played by insulin sensitizers in modulating adipose tissue lipolysis in the fasting state was evaluated in obese conscious Zucker rats treated with troglitazone or beta,beta'-tetramethylhexadecanedioic acid (MEDICA 16) and compared with nontreated lean and obese animals. The rates of appearance (R(a)) of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA),(More)