Belinda Barnes

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BACKGROUND When deciding whether to close schools during an influenza pandemic, authorities must weigh the likely benefits against the expected social disruption. Although schools have been closed to slow the spread of influenza, there is limited evidence as to the impact on transmission of disease. METHODS To assess the benefits of closing schools for(More)
The production of antimicrobial compounds known as colicins has been shown to be an important mediator of competitive interactions among Escherichia coli genotypes. There is some understanding of the forces responsible for determining the frequency of colicin production in E. coli populations; however, this understanding cannot explain all of the observed(More)
Scaling up from measurements made at small spatial and short temporal scales is a central challenge in the ecological and related sciences, where predictions at larger scales and over long time periods are required. It involves two quite distinct aspects: a formulation of a theoretical framework for calculating space-time averages, and an acquisition of(More)
Barnes and Roderick developed a generic, theoretical framework for vegetation modeling across scales. Inclusion of a self-thinning mechanism connects the individual to the larger-scale population and, being based on the conservation of mass, all mass flux processes are integral to the formulation. Significantly, disturbance (both regular and stochastic) and(More)
Farquhar and Gan have proposed a model for the spatial variation in the isotopic enrichment of H(2)(18)O across a leaf, which is specifically formulated for monocotyledoneous leaves. The model is based on the interaction between mass fluxes longitudinally within the xylem, and fluxes laterally through veinlets into the lamina mesophyll, where moisture(More)
Until a vaccine against the new strain becomes available, the response to newly emerged pandemic influenza will consist of the use of antiviral drugs and measures that limit exposure to infectious individuals. These first-line defence measures include isolating cases upon diagnosis, reducing close contacts, the use of personal protective equipment and(More)
A small proportion of water molecules contain the heavier isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. There is a tendency for these heavier molecules of water to accumulate in leaves during transpiration. This has several interesting repercussions, including effects on the isotopic composition of organic matter, and of atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide, and(More)
In many parts of the world, coliform counts in recreational waters are unacceptably high. In an attempt to rectify this problem, programmes are under way to develop methods that will allow the sources of the faecal contamination thought to be responsible for these elevated counts to be identified. The success of these efforts depends on the validity of(More)
[1] Tien-Yien Li, James A. Yorke, Period three implies Chaos, American Mathematical Monthely, 82 no.10 (1975), 985-992 [2] F.R. Marotto. Snap-back repellers imply chaos in R. J. Math. Anal. Appl., Vol. 63, pp. 199-223, 1978. [3] Keith Burns, Boris Hasselblatt, Sharkovsky’s Theorem,(2007) [4] Bau-Sen Du A Simple proof of Sharkovsky’s theorem, American(More)