Belinda Akpa

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Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of(More)
Triglyceride micro-emulsions such as Intralipid® have been used to reverse cardiac toxicity induced by a number of drugs but reservations about their broad-spectrum applicability remain because of the poorly understood mechanism of action. Herein we report an integrated mechanism of reversal of bupivacaine toxicity that includes both transient drug(More)
BACKGROUND Recent publications have questioned the validity of the "lipid sink" theory of lipid resuscitation while others have identified sink-independent effects and posed alternative mechanisms such as hemodilution. To address these issues, the authors tested the dose-dependent response to intravenous lipid emulsion during reversal of bupivacaine-induced(More)
Local anesthetic toxicity is a rare, but potentially lethal, complication of regional anesthesia that cannot be prevented by any single measure. It is associated with CNS excitation and can lead to refractory cardiac dysfunction and collapse. The development of lipid emulsion for the treatment of anesthetic-induced toxicity resulted from a set of(More)
BACKGROUND In vitro observations support the lipid sink theory of therapeutic action by confirming the capacity of lipid emulsions to successfully uptake bupivacaine from aqueous media. However, competing hypotheses and some in/ex vivo small animal studies suggest that a metabolic or positive inotropic effect underlies the dramatic effects of lipid therapy.(More)
Uneven distribution of surfactant in dried latex films can affect the final film properties such as its water-resistance, gloss, and adhesiveness. Therefore, it is important to understand the driving force for surfactant transport during drying. In this paper, the accumulation of surfactant on the surface of poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) latex is studied(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive technique that can be used to visualize mixing processes in optically opaque systems in up to three dimensions. Here, MRI has been used for the first time to obtain both cross-sectional velocity and concentration maps of flow through an optically opaque Y-shaped microfluidic sensor. Images of 23 micromx23(More)
PFG NMR methods are frequently used as a means of probing both coherent and incoherent molecular motions of fluids contained within heterogeneous porous media. The time scale over which molecular displacements can be probed in a conventional PFG NMR experiment is limited by the relaxation characteristics of (1)H - the nucleus that is typically observed. In(More)
The distortionless enhancement by polarisation transfer (DEPT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been used to provide the first in situ spatially-resolved and quantitative measurement of chemical conversion and selectivity within a fixed-bed reactor using natural abundance 13C NMR.