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Others and we have previously shown that subtype C is the predominant HIV-1 subtype and the major cause of AIDS in Ethiopia. The present study shows that subtype C in Ethiopia has a genetic subcluster, designated C', has not increased in frequency, or spread geographically, over the period 1988 (%C' = 23/53) to 1996-1997 (%C' = 26/50). There is no(More)
Characterizing host immune responses to molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential to develop effective immunodiagnostics and better vaccines. We investigated the immune response against a large series of M. tuberculosis antigens, including 5 classical and 64 nonclassical (39 DosR regulon-encoded, 4 resuscitation-promoting factor [RPF],(More)
The magnitude and complexity of the HIV-1 genetic diversity are major challenges for vaccine development. Investigation of the genotypes circulating in areas of high incidence, as well as their interactions, will be a milestone in the development of an efficacious vaccine. Because HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) is responsible for most of the 36 million infections(More)
Viruses circulating in Ethiopia during the 1990s cluster with main subtype C, but a significant subcluster, C', was noted in multiple analyses. This subcluster of subtype C(C') was in a fifty-fifty equilibrium with the main subtype C (Abebe et al., AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2000;16:1909-1914). To analyze genetic diversification within the subcluster of(More)
The pathogenesis of persistently elevated plasma HIV viremia in patients coinfected with tuberculosis (TB) during anti-TB treatment in Africans remains unknown. We examined the expression of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on CD4+ T cells and plasma chemokine levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, regulated on activation(More)
To investigate whether low CD4+ T-cell counts in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Ethiopians influence tuberculosis (TB) immunological memory, tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion and reactivity rates were investigated among adults with and without HIV infection in urban settings in Ethiopia. Reaction to the TST was analyzed with(More)
A gag-based molecular beacon assay utilizing real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technology has been developed to differentiate between the two genetic subclusters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C (C and C') circulating in Ethiopia. Of 41 samples, 36 could be classified as C or C' by sequencing of the gag gene. All 36(More)
BACKGROUND Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among(More)
To evaluate a simple and rapid testing strategy to diagnose HIV infection in Ethiopia, we subjected a panel of 688 sera with known HIV serologic status (confirmed by ELISA/WB or double ELISA) to 3 rapid assays: Determine HIV-1/2, Capillus HIV-1/2 and Serocard HIV. Samples were obtained from participants in a cohort study on HIV-infection (72%), from(More)
Five simple and rapid HIV antibody detection assays viz. Determine, Capillus, Oraquick, Unigold and Hemastrip were evaluated to examine their performance and to develop an alternative rapid test based testing algorithm for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in Ethiopia. All the kits were tested on whole blood, plasma and serum. The evaluation had three(More)