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INTRODUCTION Several neurological complications are associated with cerebral malaria (CM). However, few long-term data from childhood survivors have been published. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out in Mali among children followed from 1999 to 2002 after serious and complicated malaria. Our aim was to evaluate the persistent neurological(More)
BACKGROUND Spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the risk of malaria have led the WHO to recommend fine-scale stratification of the epidemiological situation, making it possible to set up actions and clinical or basic researches targeting high-risk zones. Before initiating such studies it is necessary to define local patterns of malaria transmission and(More)
Many human genetic associations with resistance to malaria have been reported, but few have been reliably replicated. We collected data on 11,890 cases of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and 17,441 controls from 12 locations in Africa, Asia and Oceania. We tested 55 SNPs in 27 loci previously reported to associate with severe malaria. There was(More)
BACKGROUND In order to detect potential disease clusters where a putative source cannot be specified, classical procedures scan the geographical area with circular windows through a specified grid imposed to the map. However, the choice of the windows' shapes, sizes and centers is critical and different choices may not provide exactly the same results. The(More)
Malaria is a major health burden in sub-Saharan African countries, including Mali. The disease is complex, with multiple genetic determinants influencing the observed variation in response to infection, progression, and severity. We assess the influence of sixty-four candidate loci, including the sickle cell polymorphism (HbS), on severe malaria in a(More)
We have previously found that children heterozygous for IL4 variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) (rs8179190) or IL4-33 (rs2070874) variants were at risk for severe malaria (SM), whereas homozygous children were protected suggesting a complex genetic control. Hence, to dissect this complex genetic control of IL4 VNTR and IL4-33, we performed further(More)
Recent developments in diagnostic techniques for malaria, particularly DNA probes and sero-immunology, have raised questions as to how these techniques might be used to facilitate malaria diagnosis at the most peripheral levels of the primary health care system. At present, malaria diagnosis is based on the standard microscopic examination of blood films in(More)
Although the epidemiology of malaria has been based primarily on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests, molecular methods are necessary to understand the complexity of natural infection in regions where transmission is intense and simultaneous infection with multiple parasite genotypes is common such as sub-Saharan Africa. To compare microscopic and(More)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is believed to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the precise nature of the protective effecthas proved difficult to define as G6PD deficiency has multiple allelic variants with different effects in males and females, and it has heterogeneous effects on the clinical outcome of P.(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory(More)