Bela M Mulder

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Environmental and hormonal signals cause reorganization of microtubule arrays in higher plants, but the mechanisms driving these transitions have remained elusive. The organization of these arrays is required to direct morphogenesis. We discovered that microtubule severing by the protein katanin plays a crucial and unexpected role in the reorientation of(More)
The cortical array is a structure consisting of highly aligned microtubules which plays a crucial role in the characteristic uniaxial expansion of all growing plant cells. Recent experiments have shown polymerization-driven collisions between the membrane-bound cortical microtubules, suggesting a possible mechanism for their alignment. We present both a(More)
Cell wall deposition is a key process in the formation, growth, and differentiation of plant cells. The most important structural components of the wall are long cellulose microfibrils, which are synthesized by synthases embedded in the plasma membrane. A fundamental question is how the microfibrils become oriented during deposition at the plasma membrane.(More)
The plant microtubule cortical array is a striking feature of all growing plant cells. It consists of a more or less homogeneously distributed array of highly aligned microtubules connected to the inner side of the plasma membrane and oriented transversely to the cell growth axis. Here, we formulate a continuum model to describe the origin of orientational(More)
The assembly of microtubules generates forces that play a role in cellular motility processes such as the motion of chromosomes during mitosis. Recently, Mogilner and Oster proposed a model for the growth of microtubules that agrees quantitatively with the force-velocity relation measured for individual microtubules. In addition, the authors predicted that(More)
Despite their pivotal role in plant development, control mechanisms for oriented cell divisions have remained elusive. Here, we describe how a precisely regulated cell division orientation switch in an Arabidopsis stem cell is controlled by upstream patterning factors. We show that the stem cell regulatory PLETHORA transcription factors induce division(More)
Despite recent progress in visualization experiments, the mechanism underlying chromosome segregation in bacteria still remains elusive. Here we address a basic physical issue associated with bacterial chromosome segregation, namely the spatial organization of highly confined, self-avoiding polymers (of nontrivial topology) in a rod-shaped cell-like(More)
Lateral organ formation from plant roots typically requires the de novo creation of a meristem, initiated at the location of a localized auxin maximum. Legume roots can form both root nodules and lateral roots. From the basic principles of auxin transport and metabolism only a few mechanisms can be inferred for increasing the local auxin concentration:(More)
The ordered arrangement of cortical microtubules in growing plant cells is essential for anisotropic cell expansion and, hence, for plant morphogenesis. These arrays are dismantled when the microtubule cytoskeleton is rearranged during mitosis and reassembled following completion of cytokinesis. The reassembly of the cortical array has often been considered(More)
The highly aligned cortical microtubule array of interphase plant cells is a key regulator of anisotropic cell expansion. Recent computational and analytical work has shown that the non-equilibrium self-organization of this structure can be understood on the basis of experimentally observed collisional interactions between dynamic microtubules attached to(More)