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Six sequences that are closely related to the S gene family of the largely self-incompatible Brassica species have been identified in self-fertilizing Arabidopsis. The sequences define four genomic regions that map to chromosomes 1 and 3. Of the four functional genes identified, only the previously reported Arabidopsis AtS1 gene was expressed specifically(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between change in weight and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) progression/regression in women during a 5-year period. METHODS Postmenopausal women with uteri (N=16,608), ages 50 to 79, who were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Estrogen plus Progestin Clinical Trial between 1993 and 1998 were included in(More)
To evaluate an association between hysterectomy and urinary incontinence (UI) in postmenopausal women. Women (aged 50–79) with uteri (N = 53,569) and without uteri (N = 38,524) who enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study between 1993 and 1996 were included in this secondary analysis. Baseline (BL) and 3-year demographic,(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to show 12-month outcomes of a randomized trial that compared vaginal prolapse repair with and without mesh. STUDY DESIGN Women with stage ≥2 prolapse were assigned randomly to vaginal repair with or without mesh. The primary outcome was prolapse stage ≤1 at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included quality of life and(More)
The hepatic uptake of bile acids from the portal circulation is primarily dependent upon a sodium-dependent basolateral membrane transporter. In order to begin to investigate the factors controlling rat liver sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (ntcp) gene expression, we isolated approximately 30 kilobase pairs of rat genomic DNA in three overlapping(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of operative vaginal delivery (forceps or vacuum) and midline episiotomy on the risk of severe perineal trauma. STUDY DESIGN In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the impact of maternal and obstetric factors on the risk of development of severe perineal trauma (third- and(More)
The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with anal sphincter laceration in primiparous women. A subpopulation of 40,923 primiparous women at term with complete data sets was abstracted from a state-wide perinatal database in Germany. Outcome variable was anal sphincter laceration. Independent variables were 17 known obstetrical risk(More)
Most posterior wall defects occur in combination with other pelvic support disorders. Some patients with rectoceles, the most common posterior wall defect, are asymptomatic, whereas others experience a range of symptoms from a sensation of lower pelvic fullness to defecatory and/or sexual dysfunction. If patients are symptomatic, rectoceles can be treated(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine what effect the major modifiable risk factors for severe perineal trauma have had on the rates of this trauma over time. METHODS A retrospective observational cohort study of singleton vaginal deliveries taken from a perinatal database for the period 1996 through 2006. RESULTS A total of 46,239 singleton vertex vaginal deliveries(More)