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Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the nervous system, has been shown to modulate immune function. We have previously reported that five subtypes of DA receptors, including D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R and D5R, are expressed in T lymphocytes and they are involved in regulation of T cells. However, roles of these DA receptor subtypes and their coupled(More)
Cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been well shown to be elevated in brain injury and diseases. However, the significance of IL-6 production in such neuropathologic states remains controversial, and the intracellular signal-transduction pathways involved in the brain IL-6 action are primarily unclear. We previously indicated that exogenous IL-6 protected(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently we have shown that TGF-β1 pretreatment in vitro protects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss that characterizes in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that TGF-β1(More)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect in humans, and the etiology of most CHD remains to be elusive. Atrial septal defect (ASD) makes up 30–40% of all adult CHDs and is thought to be genetically heterogeneous. Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in transcription factors e.g. NKX2.5, GATA4, and TBX5 contribute to(More)
We have previously shown that the cerebellum regulates functions of T, B and natural killer (NK) cells. Herein, we provide further evidence for cerebellar immunomodulation at the profiles of differentiation and maturation of thymocytes and function of mature T lymphocytes. Neuronal bodies of the fastigial nuclei (FN), one of three cerebellar nuclei, were(More)
Our previous work has shown that the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) is involved in modulation of lymphocyte function. Herein, we investigated effect of FN γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic projections to the hypothalamus on lymphocytes to understand pathways and mechanisms underlying cerebellar immunomodulation. By injection of Texas red dextran amine(More)
Our previous studies have shown that the cerebellar interposed nucleus (IN) modulates lymphocyte functions. As the cerebellum does not have a direct contact with the immune system, it is required to explore the pathway mediating the cerebellar immunomodulation. In this study, both lymphocyte percentage in peripheral leukocytes and lymphocyte proliferation(More)
T helper (Th)17 cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, have strong pro-inflammatory property and appear to be essential in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. However, the involvement of Th17 cells in Parkinson’s disease (PD) that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the nigrostriatal system is(More)
OBJECTIVES We explored effect of glutamatergic neurons in the fastigial nucleus (FN), one of three cerebellar nuclei, on humoral immunity and revealed that this effect was mediated by the hypothalamus via FN-hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission. METHODS Rats were immunized with bovine serum albumin (BSA). On the third day after the immunization,(More)
OBJECTIVE We previously showed that the cerebellum modulates the immune system. Here we determined whether cerebellar ataxia alters immunological function to further demonstrate an involvement of the cerebellum in immune modulation. METHODS Neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) was intraperitoneally injected in rats to induce cerebellar ataxia. Behavior and(More)