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OBJECTIVE To assess safety, efficacy, and tolerability of pramlintide dose escalation with proactive mealtime insulin reduction, followed by insulin optimization, in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 29-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 296 patients to pramlintide or placebo as an adjunct to insulin.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of pramlintide in patients with type 2 diabetes suboptimally controlled with basal insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 212 patients using insulin glargine with or without oral antidiabetes agents (OAs) were randomized to addition of pramlintide (60 or 120(More)
AIMS Oxidative stress is frequently implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects and their underlying mechanism(s) of edaravone upon hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal neuronal model. METHODS HT22 cells were treated with H2O2 in the(More)
The injured spinal cord does not heal properly. In contrast, tissue repair and functional recovery occur after skin or muscle injuries. The reason for this dichotomy in wound repair is unclear but inflammation, and specifically macrophage activation, likely plays a key role. Macrophages have the ability to promote the repair of injured tissue by regulating(More)
Epidemiology and genetic studies indicate that patients with telomere length shorter than average are at higher risk of dying from heart disease or stroke. Telomeres are located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, which demonstrate progressive length reduction in most somatic cells during aging. The enzyme telomerase can compensate for telomere loss(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific protein trans-activator of transcription (Tat) can contribute to the dysfunction of brain endothelial cells and HIV trafficking into the brain by disrupting tight junction (TJ) integrity at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) level. Specific TJ proteins, such as zonula occludens (ZO) proteins, localize not only at(More)
BACKGROUND Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) has been established as a reliable and potential biomarker of neuronal damage after acute neurologic insults such as ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury. The effects of seizures on UCH-L1 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been investigated in epileptic(More)
BACKGROUND Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) comprise a ubiquitous class of toxic substances associated with carcinogenic and tumor-promoting effects as well as neurotoxic properties in the brain. However, the effects of PCBs on the development of tumor metastases are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the hypothesis that exposure to individual(More)
Macrophages with different activation states are present after spinal cord injury (SCI). M1 macrophages purportedly promote secondary injury processes while M2 cells support axon growth. The average age at the time of SCI has increased in recent decades, however, little is known about how different physiological factors contribute to macrophage activation(More)
IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected(More)