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Human color constancy has been studied for over 100 years, and there is extensive experimental data for the case where a spatially diffuse light source illuminates a set of flat matte surfaces. In natural viewing, however, three-dimensional objects are viewed in three-dimensional scenes. Little is known about color constancy for three-dimensional objects.(More)
Vision is difficult because images are ambiguous about the structure of the world. For object color, the ambiguity arises because the same object reflects a different spectrum to the eye under different illuminations. Human vision typically does a good job of resolving this ambiguity-an ability known as color constancy. The past 20 years have seen an(More)
Cortical responses to spatially discrete patches of achromatic luminance contrast can be altered by the presence of high-contrast, spatially remote "surrounds" and this achromatic "surround suppression" has been the subject of much recent research. However, the nature of long-range contrast normalization in chromatic signals has been less studied. Here we(More)
RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables(More)
This investigation photoelastically compared the load-transfer characteristics of various bilateral distal-extension removable partial denture designs embodying intracoronal attachments and clasp assemblies. Six distal-extension designs that included the RPI clasp assembly, cast circumferential clasp, P.D. locking semiprecision, Thompson dowel nonlocking(More)
Translucency is an important aspect of material appearance. To some extent, humans are able to estimate translucency in a consistent way across different shapes and lighting conditions, i.e., to exhibit translucency constancy. However, Fleming and Bülthoff (2005) have shown that that there can be large failures of constancy, with lighting direction playing(More)
Multiple scattering contributes critically to the characteristic translucent appearance of food, liquids, skin, and crystals; but little is known about how it is perceived by human observers. This article explores the perception of translucency by studying the image effects of variations in one factor of multiple scattering: the phase function. We consider(More)
What determines the color appearance of real objects viewed under natural conditions? The light reflected from different locations on a single object can vary enormously. This variation is enhanced when the material properties of the object are changed from matte to glossy. Yet humans have no trouble assigning a color name to most things. We studied how(More)
Commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras are inexpensive and easy-to-use instruments that can be used for quantitative scientific data acquisition if images are captured in raw format and processed so that they maintain a linear relationship with scene radiance. Here we describe the image-processing steps required for consistent data acquisition with color(More)