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Maturation of presynaptic transmitter secretion machinery is a critical step in synaptogenesis. Here we report that a brief train of presynaptic action potentials rapidly converts early nonfunctional contacts between cultured hippocampal neurons into functional synapses by enhancing presynaptic glutamate release. The enhanced release was confirmed by a(More)
Transcriptional programs that initiate and sustain the proliferation, differentiation and survival of CD8(+) T cells during immune responses are not completely understood. Here we show that inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), an antagonist of E protein transcription factors, was upregulated in CD8(+) T cells during infection and that expression of Id2 was(More)
Presenilins play essential roles in memory formation, synaptic function, and neuronal survival. Mutations in the Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene are the major cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). How PSEN1 mutations cause FAD is unclear, and pathogenic mechanisms based on gain or loss of function have been proposed. Here, we generated Psen1 knockin (KI)(More)
Presenilin (PS) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and loss of PS causes progressive memory impairment and age-related neurodegeneration in the mouse cerebral cortex. In hippocampal neurons, PS is essential for neurotransmitter release, NMDA receptor-mediated responses, and long-term potentiation. PS is also involved in the(More)
Mutations in the presenilin genes are the main cause of familial Alzheimer's disease. Loss of presenilin activity and/or accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides have been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease by impairing synaptic function. However, the precise site and nature of the synaptic dysfunction remain unknown. Here we use a(More)
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent and bioaccumulative pollutant ubiquitous in wildlife and humans. Although the distribution and fate of PFOS have been widely studied, its potential neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. In the present study, the acute and chronic effects of PFOS on the development and synaptic transmission of hippocampal(More)
Parkin is the most common causative gene of juvenile and early-onset familial Parkinson's diseases and is thought to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, it remains unclear how loss of Parkin protein causes dopaminergic dysfunction and nigral neurodegeneration. To investigate the pathogenic mechanism underlying(More)
Revealing the uptake, transport, localization and speciation of both essential and toxic elements in plants is important for understanding plant homeostasis and metabolism, subsequently, providing information for food and nutrient studies, agriculture activities, as well as environmental research. In the last decade, emerging techniques for elemental(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine racial/ethnic disparities in oral health among older Americans. METHODS Differences in frequency of edentulism and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth were assessed in 2,679 non-Hispanic white, 742 non-Hispanic black, and 934 Mexican-American individuals aged 60 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination(More)
China's rapid economic reforms, coupled with the changes in age composition of the demographic structure, have greatly affected the traditional family support system. In response to these changes, efforts to develop new models of community-based long-term care (CBLTC) for elders in China have received growing attention. This paper provides a systematic(More)