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TRF1 and TRF2 are key proteins in human telomeres, which, despite their similarities, have different behaviors upon DNA binding. Previous work has shown that unlike TRF1, TRF2 condenses telomeric, thus creating consequential negative torsion on the adjacent DNA, a property that is thought to lead to the stimulation of single-strand invasion and was proposed(More)
The shelterin proteins protect telomeres against activation of the DNA damage checkpoints and recombinational repair. We show here that a dimer of the shelterin subunit TRF2 wraps ∼ 90 bp of DNA through several lysine and arginine residues localized around its homodimerization domain. The expression of a wrapping-deficient TRF2 mutant, named Top-less,(More)
A major issue in telomere research is to understand how the integrity of chromosome ends is controlled. The fact that different types of nucleoprotein complexes have been described at the telomeres of different organisms raises the question of whether they have in common a structural identity that explains their role in chromosome protection. We will review(More)
BACKGROUND To determine potential social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors that may result in motivating female sex workers (FSWs), who are rural-to-urban migrants, and their paying partners in Shanghai, China to promote consistent condom use (CCU). METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including(More)
BACKGROUND China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related(More)
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are emerging as promising innovations for future network, which make Virtual Network Service (VNS) possible to be implemented broadly. It is the common truth that VNS is realized by the collaborations of multi-providers in practical scenario, where potential risks are lying in the(More)
Domain Name System (DNS) is one of the most crucial components of the Internet. However, due to the vulnerability of DNS, its security has been continuously challenged in recent years. In order to thoroughly understand the root cause of the security risks in the DNS, researches in DNS security are surveyed, and vulnerabilities in DNS and corresponding(More)
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a major threat to Internet based killer applications, such as independent news web sites, e-business and online games. Detecting and blocking such clever attacks has become difficult. Software-Defined Networks (SDN) has emerged as a future communication network architecture which decouples network control and(More)
The integration of Internet of Things (IoT) and social networks is the important trend of new network technologies, which is Social Internet of Tings (SIoT). In many application scenarios, SIoT are controlled by different authorities. And the network nodes belong to different domain can share the sensor data by standard protocols. Moreover, in a(More)