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The metastatic potential of some tumor cells is associated with the expression of the neolactoseries antigens sialyl-Lewis x (sLex) and sialyl-Lewis a (sLea) as they are ligands for selectins. We have recently shown that peptide mimetics of these antigens can potentiate IgG2a antibodies, which are associated with a Th1-type cellular response. As L-selectin(More)
To date, the generation of anti-carbohydrate Th1 immune responses, which would be useful for both tumor immunotherapy as well as in pathogen vaccine strategies, has been elusive. To augment Th1 immune responses to carbohydrate Ags, we describe results of DNA vaccination studies in mice using plasmids encoding designed peptide mimotopes (minigenes) of the(More)
We have previously demonstrated that chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) on breast cancer cells function as P-selectin ligands. This study was performed to identify the carrier proteoglycan (PG) and the sulfotransferase gene involved in synthesis of the surface P-selectin-reactive CS-GAGs in human breast cancer cells with high metastatic(More)
Activation of T cells requires both TCR-specific ligation by direct contact with peptide Ag-MHC complexes and coligation of the B7 family of ligands through CD28/CTLA-4 on the T cell surface. We recently reported that coadministration of CD86 cDNA along with DNA encoding HIV-1 Ags i.m. dramatically increased Ag-specific CTL responses. We investigated(More)
Peptide mimetics may substitute for carbohydrate antigens in vaccine design applications. At present, the structural and immunological aspects of antigenic mimicry, which translate into immunologic mimicry, as well as the functional correlates of each, are unknown. In contrast to screening peptide display libraries, we demonstrate the feasibility of a(More)
Peptide mimetics of carbohydrates represent an alternative approach to induce anti-carbohydrate responses. Depending on their formulation, peptide mimetics can mediate T-independent or T-dependent responses. Multivalent peptide mimeotopes can induce high IgM/IgG ratios, as non-conjugated carbohydrates do. Here we observe that immunization with multivalent(More)
The metastatic breast cancer cell line, 4T1, abundantly expresses the oligosaccharide sialylated Lewis x (sLe(x)). SLe(x) oligosaccharide on tumor cells can be recognized by E- and P-selectin, contributing to tumor metastatic process. We observed that both selectins reacted with this cell line. However, contrary to the E-selectin reactivity, which was(More)
Our previously published data link P-selectin-reactive chondroitin sulfate structures on the surface of breast cancer cells to metastatic behavior of cells. We have shown that a particular sulfation pattern mediated by the expression of carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase-11 (CHST11) correlates with P-selectin binding and aggressiveness of human(More)
Carbohydrate mimetic peptides of tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are T-cell-dependent antigens and, therefore, immunization with these surrogates is predicted to overcome the low immunogenicity of carbohydrate antigens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that among the potential immune cells involved, peptide immunization led to an(More)
Mechanisms of broad cross-protection, as seen in viral infection and also applied to vaccines, emphasize preexisting antibodies, CD8+ memory T cells, and accelerated B-cell responses reactive with conserved regions in antigens. Another practical application to induce broad-spectrum responses is making use of multispecific antigen recognition by antibodies(More)