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Hydrogels have been developed to respond to a wide variety of stimuli, but their use in macroscopic systems has been hindered by slow response times (diffusion being the rate-limiting factor governing the swelling process). However, there are many natural examples of chemically driven actuation that rely on short diffusion paths to produce a rapid response.(More)
Accidental vascular placement of Veress needle or cannula during laparoscopic insufflation with carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may cause a fatal gas embolism. Deliberate CO2 injection into the vena cava of dogs did not define a safe flow rate or pressure to prevent mortality. We studied incremental increase in pressure at the same maximum rate of gas flow(More)
Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited hy Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp), is one of severe seed-borne diseases of common bean {Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Breeding for resistant cultivars to Xcp is the most effective measures to control CBB. A germplasm line XAN 159 derived from an interspecific cross between P, vulgaris and P. acuîifolius(More)
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