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Epidemiological processes leave a fingerprint in the pattern of genetic structure of virus populations. Here, we provide a new method to infer epidemiological parameters directly from viral sequence data. The method is based on phylogenetic analysis using a birth-death model (BDM) rather than the commonly used coalescent as the model for the epidemiological(More)
BACKGROUND The time passed since the infection of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual (the age of infection) is an important but often only poorly known quantity. We assessed whether the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides obtained from bulk sequencing as done for genotypic resistance testing can serve as a proxy of this parameter. (More)
HIV-1-infected cells in peripheral blood can be grouped into different transcriptional subclasses. Quantifying the turnover of these cellular subclasses can provide important insights into the viral life cycle and the generation and maintenance of latently infected cells. We used previously published data from five patients chronically infected with HIV-1(More)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a valuable tool for the detection and quantification of HIV-1 variants in vivo. However, these technologies require detailed characterization and control of artificially induced errors to be applicable for accurate haplotype reconstruction. To investigate the occurrence of substitutions, insertions, and deletions at the(More)
BACKGROUND Although combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated in the acute phase of HIV-1 infection may prevent expansion of the latent reservoir, its benefits remain controversial. In the current study, HIV-1 RNA transcription patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were monitored during acute cART to assess the effect of early(More)
BACKGROUND In the context of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), current findings suggest that the mucosal barrier is the major site of viral selection, transforming the complex inoculum to a small, homogeneous founder virus population. We analyzed HIV-1 transmission in relation to viral and host characteristics within the(More)
Recently, passive immunization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10 provided evidence of the in vivo activity of 2G12 but raised concerns about the function of the two membrane-proximal external region (MPER)-specific MAbs (A. Trkola, H. Kuster, P. Rusert, B. Joos, M. Fischer, C.(More)
The use of structured treatment interruption (STI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects is currently being studied as an alternative therapeutic strategy for HIV-1. The potential risk for selection of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants during STI is unknown and remains a concern. Therefore, the emergence of drug resistance in sequential plasma(More)
HIV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and completes its replication cycle in approximately 24 hours. We employed repeated measurements in a standardized cell system and rigorous mathematical modeling to characterize the emergence of the viral replication intermediates and their impact on the cellular transcriptional response with high temporal resolution. We observed(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation during primary HIV-1 infection are debated. METHODS The evolution of plasma HIV-RNA (432 measurements) and cell-associated HIV-DNA (325 measurements) after cessation of cART (median exposure 18 months) was described for 33 participants from the Zurich Primary HIV(More)