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Epidemiological processes leave a fingerprint in the pattern of genetic structure of virus populations. Here, we provide a new method to infer epidemiological parameters directly from viral sequence data. The method is based on phylogenetic analysis using a birth-death model (BDM) rather than the commonly used coalescent as the model for the epidemiological(More)
To determine the protective potential of the humoral immune response against HIV-1 in vivo we evaluated the potency of three neutralizing antibodies (2G12, 2F5 and 4E10) in suppressing viral rebound in six acutely and eight chronically HIV-1-infected individuals undergoing interruption of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Only two of eight chronically(More)
BACKGROUND The time passed since the infection of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual (the age of infection) is an important but often only poorly known quantity. We assessed whether the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides obtained from bulk sequencing as done for genotypic resistance testing can serve as a proxy of this parameter. (More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate time to viral rebound in patients undergoing repeated structured treatment interruptions (STI). METHOD Fourteen chronically HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Swiss-Spanish Intermittent Treatment Trial (SSITT) underwent frequent blood sampling. Patients underwent four cycles of 2-week STI, followed by 8-week retreatment with the(More)
HIV-1-infected cells in peripheral blood can be grouped into different transcriptional subclasses. Quantifying the turnover of these cellular subclasses can provide important insights into the viral life cycle and the generation and maintenance of latently infected cells. We used previously published data from five patients chronically infected with HIV-1(More)
Unspliced HIV-RNA (HIV-UsRNA) associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) persists in patients on potent antiretroviral therapy even in the absence of detectable plasma HIV-RNA. To further characterize such residual HIV-RNA, cell-associated virion-encapsidated HIV and intracellular unspliced HIV-RNA were differentiated and monitored using a(More)
Concentrations of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone, and pyrimethamine were determined in 36 serum samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on prophylaxis with once-weekly administration of dapsone-pyrimethamine (200 mg of dapsone-75 mg of pyrimethamine). During day 1 after ingestion, median levels of 1,038 ng of dapsone per ml and 356 ng of(More)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a valuable tool for the detection and quantification of HIV-1 variants in vivo. However, these technologies require detailed characterization and control of artificially induced errors to be applicable for accurate haplotype reconstruction. To investigate the occurrence of substitutions, insertions, and deletions at the(More)
The dynamics of HIV-1 RNA during structured treatment interruptions (STIs) are well established, but little is known about viral proteins like p24. We studied 65 participants of an STI trial. Before the trial, continuous highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) had suppressed their viral load to <50 copies/mL during 6 months. They then interrupted HAART(More)
Rapid rebound of plasma viremia in patients after interruption of long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suggests persistence of low-level replicating cells or rapid reactivation of latently infected cells. To further characterize rebounding virus, we performed extensive longitudinal clonal evolutionary studies of HIV env C2-V3-C3 regions and(More)