Learn More
Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian(More)
Timing is a critical factor in neuroendocrinology. Despite this, the temporal aspects of glucocorticoid signaling in the regulation of in vivo targets have been largely overlooked. Here, we present data showing that plasma glucocorticoid levels differ greatly from the constant signal predominantly used in cell culture experiments. Using an automated blood(More)
Glucocorticoids are secreted in discrete pulses resulting in an ultradian rhythm in all species that have been studied. In the rat there is an approximately hourly rhythm of corticosterone secretion, which appears to be regulated by alternating activation and inhibition of the HPA axis. At the level of signal transduction, the response to these pulses of(More)
In vivo glucocorticoid (GC) secretion exhibits a distinctive ultradian rhythmicity. The lipophilic hormone can rapidly diffuse into cells, although only the pulse peak is of sufficient amplitude to activate the low affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Discrete pulses readily access brain regions such as the hippocampus where GR expression is enriched and(More)
Spatiotemporal aspects of ERK activation are stimulus-specific and dictate cellular consequences. They are dependent upon dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) that bind ERK via docking domains and can both inactivate and anchor ERK in cellular compartments. Using high throughput fluorescence microscopy in combination with a system where endogenous ERKs are(More)
The presence of GH receptor (GHR) in the cell nucleus correlates with cell division, and targeting the GHR to the nucleus results in constitutive proliferation and transformation because of increased sensitivity to autocrine GH. Here we have sought additional mechanisms that might account for the enhanced proliferation seen with nuclear GHR, commencing with(More)
Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been demonstrated to be nuclear localized both in vivo and in vitro, but the significance of this observation has remained elusive. Here we show that nuclear GHR is strongly correlated with proliferative status in vivo by using a liver regeneration model. In vitro, nuclear translocation of the GH receptor is GH-dependent(More)
The classical concept of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) homeostasis comprises a feedback system within which circulating levels of glucocorticoid hormones maintain the brain and body in an optimal steady state. However, studies involving new techniques for investigating the real-time dynamics of both glucocorticoid hormones and glucocorticoid receptor(More)
Glucocorticoid hormones are released in rapid hourly hormone bursts by the adrenal gland. These ultradian oscillations are fundamental to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity and transcriptional regulation of glucocorticoid responsive genes. The physiological relevance of glucocorticoid pulsatility is however unknown. Using a novel automated infusion(More)
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are secreted from the adrenal gland in a characteristic pulsatile pattern. This ultradian secretory activity exhibits remarkable plasticity, with distinct changes in response to both physiological and stressful stimuli in humans and experimental animals. It is therefore important to understand how the pattern of GC exposure(More)