Learn More
In vivo glucocorticoid (GC) secretion exhibits a distinctive ultradian rhythmicity. The lipophilic hormone can rapidly diffuse into cells, although only the pulse peak is of sufficient amplitude to activate the low affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Discrete pulses readily access brain regions such as the hippocampus where GR expression is enriched and(More)
Timing is a critical factor in neuroendocrinology. Despite this, the temporal aspects of glucocorticoid signaling in the regulation of in vivo targets have been largely overlooked. Here, we present data showing that plasma glucocorticoid levels differ greatly from the constant signal predominantly used in cell culture experiments. Using an automated blood(More)
Glucocorticoids are secreted in discrete pulses resulting in an ultradian rhythm in all species that have been studied. In the rat there is an approximately hourly rhythm of corticosterone secretion, which appears to be regulated by alternating activation and inhibition of the HPA axis. At the level of signal transduction, the response to these pulses of(More)
The classical concept of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) homeostasis comprises a feedback system within which circulating levels of glucocorticoid hormones maintain the brain and body in an optimal steady state. However, studies involving new techniques for investigating the real-time dynamics of both glucocorticoid hormones and glucocorticoid receptor(More)
Activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids regulates hundreds of genes to control regulatory networks in development, metabolism, cognition and inflammation. Elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate glucocorticoid action has highlighted the dynamic nature of hormone signalling and provides novel insights(More)
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are secreted from the adrenal gland in a characteristic pulsatile pattern. This ultradian secretory activity exhibits remarkable plasticity, with distinct changes in response to both physiological and stressful stimuli in humans and experimental animals. It is therefore important to understand how the pattern of GC exposure(More)
Glucocorticoid hormones are released in rapid hourly hormone bursts by the adrenal gland. These ultradian oscillations are fundamental to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity and transcriptional regulation of glucocorticoid responsive genes. The physiological relevance of glucocorticoid pulsatility is however unknown. Using a novel automated infusion(More)
Modulation of metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor function has huge potential for treating psychiatric and neurological diseases. Development of drugs acting on mGlu2 receptors depends on the development and use of translatable animal models of disease. We report here a stop codon mutation at cysteine 407 in Grm2 (cys407*) that is common in some(More)
In recent years it has become evident that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action in the nucleus is highly dynamic, characterized by a rapid exchange at the chromatin template. This stochastic mode of GR action couples perfectly with a deterministic pulsatile availability of endogenous ligand in vivo. The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone (cortisol in man and(More)
The effects of RU486 and S-P, a more selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist from Schering-Plough, were investigated on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding. In the in vitro study, AtT20 cells were treated with vehicle or with RU486, S-P or corticosterone (3-300 nM) or co-treated with vehicle or glucocorticoid receptor(More)