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CD8(+) T cells can exert both protective and harmful effects on the virus-infected host. However, there is no systematic method to identify the attributes of a protective CD8(+) T cell response. Here, we combine theory and experiment to identify and quantify the contribution of all HLA class I alleles to host protection against infection with a given(More)
Understanding the role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in controlling HIV-1 infection is vital for vaccine design. However, it is difficult to assess the importance of CTLs in natural infection. Different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles are associated with different rates of progression to AIDS, indicating that CTLs play a protective role.(More)
BACKGROUND HTLV-I causes the disabling inflammatory disease HAM/TSP: there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment and no means of assessing the risk of disease or prognosis in infected people. Like many immunopathological diseases with a viral etiology the outcome of infection is thought to depend on the virus-host immunology interaction. However the(More)
Theoretical methods for predicting CD8+ T-cell epitopes are an important tool in vaccine design and for enhancing our understanding of the cellular immune system. The most popular methods currently available produce binding affinity predictions across a range of MHC molecules. In comparing results between these MHC molecules, it is common practice to apply(More)
Estimation of immunological and microbiological diversity is vital to our understanding of infection and the immune response. For instance, what is the diversity of the T cell repertoire? These questions are partially addressed by high-throughput sequencing techniques that enable identification of immunological and microbiological "species" in a sample.(More)
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) influence both innate and adaptive immunity. But while the role of KIRs in NK-mediated innate immunity is well-documented, the impact of KIRs on the T cell response in human disease is not known. Here we test the hypothesis that an individual's KIR genotype affects the efficiency of their HLA class I-mediated(More)
In January 2010 two groups independently published the observation that the depletion of CD8+ cells in SIV-infected macaques had no detectable impact on the lifespan of productively infected cells. This unexpected observation led the authors to suggest that CD8+ T cells control SIV viraemia via non-lytic mechanisms. However, a number of alternative(More)
HIV-1 escape from the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response leads to a weakening of viral control and is likely to be detrimental to the patient. To date, the impact of escape on viral load and CD4(+) T cell count has not been quantified, primarily because of sparse longitudinal data and the difficulty of separating cause and effect in cross-sectional(More)
The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected cells are killed in vivo by the CTL response is poorly understood. To date the rate of CTL killing in vivo has been estimated for three virus infections but(More)
The CD8+ T cell effector mechanisms that mediate control of HIV-1 and SIV infections remain poorly understood. Recent work suggests that the mechanism may be primarily non-lytic. This is in apparent conflict with the observation that SIV and HIV-1 variants that escape CD8+ T cell surveillance are frequently selected. Whilst it is clear that a variant that(More)