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The toxin profiles of three isolates and natural populations of the PSP agentAlexandrium minutum from several Galician rías (NW Spain) was obtained by HPLC. The toxin content of cultures ofA. minutum is dominated by GTX4 (80–90%) and GTX4 (10–15%) with small amounts of GTX3 and GTX2 (less than 3% of each); similar results were obtained for natural(More)
Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L⁻¹). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and(More)
Marine biotoxins from microalgae can accumulate in shellfish and lead to poisoning of human consumers as well as fish, marine mammals and sea birds. Toxicological assessment of the toxins and development of analytical methods require large amounts of high-purity toxins and their metabolites. Although these toxins can be obtained in limited amounts from(More)
A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-symbiotic bacterium (AM1V30(T)) was isolated from the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum AL1V. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain AM1V30(T) was most closely related (97.4 % similarity) to the type strain of Hoeflea marina, which belongs to the family Phyllobacteriaceae within the order Rhizobiales(More)
From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata(More)
A method is described to prepare total DNA from single cells of dinoflagellates, which can be used for PCR amplification. As model organisms, we used a stock strain of Alexandrium catenella and cells of Dinophysis acuminata harvested from the Atlantic Ocean. Fresh grown cells or cells maintained in different preservatives were tested as sources for DNA(More)
The highly productive mussel fishery in the Rias Bajas region of northwest Spain has experienced several outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) beginning in 1976. In this study, similarities in the HPLC analyses of extracts from toxic shellfish, plankton tows and cultured dinoflagellates from the Rias Vigo and Pontevedra clearly indicate that(More)
Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis caudata are seasonal components of the dinoflagellate community in the Galician Rías Bajas (NW Spain). These species can be the main contributors to the occurrence of Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins (LST) in September-October, leading to prohibition of harvesting in an area of intensive mariculture (250 x 10(3)t of cultured(More)
Photosynthetic dinoflagellates possess a great diversity of plastids that have been acquired through successful serial endosymbiosis. The peridinin-containing plastid in dinoflagellates is canonical, but many other types are known within this group. Within the Dinophysiales, several species of Dinophysis contain plastids, derived from cryptophytes or(More)
Dinophysis sacculus is associated with DSP outbreaks especially in the Mediterranean Sea and is supposed to be mildly toxic based on few toxin results from field samples. First report of LC-MS analysis of D. sacculus cultures from Galicia (NW Spain) showed moderate amounts of OA (7.8 pg cell(-1)) comparable to those found in Dinophysis acuminata from the(More)