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PD-1 is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. Mice deficient in PD-1 exhibit a breakdown of peripheral tolerance and demonstrate multiple autoimmune features. We report here that the ligand of PD-1 (PD-L1) is a member of the B7 gene family. Engagement of PD-1 by PD-L1 leads to the inhibition of T cell(More)
Programmed death I (PD-I)-deficient mice develop a variety of autoimmune-like diseases, which suggests that this immunoinhibitory receptor plays an important role in tolerance. We identify here PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) as a second ligand for PD-1 and compare the function and expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. Engagement of PD-1 by PD-L2 dramatically inhibits T(More)
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor expressed upon T cell activation. PD-1(-/-) animals develop autoimmune diseases, suggesting an inhibitory role for PD-1 in immune responses. Members of the B7 family, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are ligands for PD-1. This study examines the functional consequences(More)
T cell activation is dependent upon signals delivered through the antigen-specific T cell receptor and accessory receptors on the T cell. A primary costimulatory signal is delivered through the CD28 receptor after engagement of its ligands, B7-1 (CD80) or B7-2 (CD86). Engagement of CTLA-4 (CD152) by the same B7-1 or B7-2 ligands results in attenuation of T(More)
IL-17R signaling is critical for pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and host defense against Gram-negative bacteria through the coordinated release of G-CSF and CXC chemokine elaboration. In this study, we show that IL-17R is localized to basal airway cells in human lung tissue, and functional IL-17R signaling occurs on the basolateral surface of human(More)
Cancer immunotherapy has gained significant momentum from recent clinical successes of checkpoint blockade inhibition. Massively parallel sequence analysis suggests a connection between mutational load and response to this class of therapy. Methods to identify which tumor-specific mutant peptides (neoantigens) can elicit anti-tumor T cell immunity are(More)
An obstacle to cancer immunotherapy has been that the affinity of T-cell receptors (TCRs) for antigens expressed in tumors is generally low. We initiated clinical testing of engineered T cells expressing an affinity-enhanced TCR against HLA-A*01-restricted MAGE-A3. Open-label protocols to test the TCRs for patients with myeloma and melanoma were initiated.(More)
T cell immunity directed against tumor-encoded amino acid substitutions occurs in some melanoma patients. This implicates missense mutations as a source of patient-specific neoantigens. However, a systematic evaluation of these putative neoantigens as targets of antitumor immunity is lacking. Moreover, it remains unknown whether vaccination can augment such(More)
The specificity of peptide binding by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules was investigated in a cell-free direct-binding assay. Peptides were assessed for binding to HLA-A2 and HLA-B27 by measuring the formation of heterotrimeric HLA complexes that consisted of iodinated beta 2-microglobulin, HLA heavy chain fragments isolated from the(More)
Nonactivated CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells constitutively express glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related receptor (GITR), a TNFR family member whose engagement was presumed to abrogate regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. Using GITR-/- mice, we report that GITR engagement on CD25-, not CD25+ T cells abrogates T cell-mediated suppression. Mouse APCs(More)