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PD-1 is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. Mice deficient in PD-1 exhibit a breakdown of peripheral tolerance and demonstrate multiple autoimmune features. We report here that the ligand of PD-1 (PD-L1) is a member of the B7 gene family. Engagement of PD-1 by PD-L1 leads to the inhibition of T cell(More)
Interactions between PD-1 and its two differentially expressed ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, attenuate T cell activation and effector function. To determine the role of these molecules in autoimmune disease of the CNS, PD-1-/-, PD-L1-/- and PD-L2-/- mice were generated and immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). PD-1-/- and PD-L1-/-(More)
T cell immunity directed against tumor-encoded amino acid substitutions occurs in some melanoma patients. This implicates missense mutations as a source of patient-specific neoantigens. However, a systematic evaluation of these putative neoantigens as targets of antitumor immunity is lacking. Moreover, it remains unknown whether vaccination can augment such(More)
Nonactivated CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells constitutively express glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related receptor (GITR), a TNFR family member whose engagement was presumed to abrogate regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. Using GITR-/- mice, we report that GITR engagement on CD25-, not CD25+ T cells abrogates T cell-mediated suppression. Mouse APCs(More)
IL-17A and IL-17F, produced by the Th17 CD4(+) T cell lineage, have been linked to a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. We recently reported that activated human CD4(+) T cells produce not only IL-17A and IL-17F homodimers but also an IL-17F/IL-17A heterodimeric cytokine. All three cytokines can induce chemokine secretion from bronchial(More)
The B7 family consists of structurally related, cell-surface protein ligands, which bind to receptors on lymphocytes that regulate immune responses. Activation of T and B lymphocytes is initiated by engagement of cell-surface, antigen-specific T-cell receptors or B-cell receptors, but additional signals delivered simultaneously by B7 ligands determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic administration of IL-12p70 has demonstrated clinical activity in cancer patients, but dose-limiting toxicities have hindered its incorporation in vaccine formulations. Here, we report on the immunological and clinical outcomes upon vaccination with CD40L/IFN-γ-matured, IL-12p70-producing DCs. METHODS 7 HLA-A*0201+ newly diagnosed stage(More)
T cell activation through the T cell receptor (TCR) involves partitioning of receptors into discrete membrane compartments known as lipid rafts, and the formation of an immunological synapse (IS) between the T cell and antigen-presenting cell (APC). Compartmentalization of negative regulators of T cell activation such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated(More)
CD4 T cells activated in vitro by anti-CD3/28-coated beads are resistant to infection by CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-dependent HIV-1 isolates. In vivo, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) activate CD4 T cells in part by signaling through the T cell receptor and CD28, yet cells stimulated in this manner are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. We show that(More)
PURPOSE Immunodeficient mice serve as critical hosts for transplantation of xenogeneic cells for in vivo analysis of various biological processes. Because investigators typically select one or two immunodeficient mouse strains as recipients, no comprehensive study has been published documenting differences in human tumor engraftment. Taking advantage of the(More)