Beatriz A. Pacheco

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Foamy virus evolution closely parallels that of the host species, indicating virus-host coadaptation. We studied simian foamy viruses (SFVs) from common marmosets, spider monkeys, and squirrel monkeys, New World monkey (NWM) species that share geographic ranges. The TRIM5alpha protein from each of these NWM species inhibited the replication of at least one(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) enters cells following sequential activation of the high-potential-energy viral envelope glycoprotein trimer by target cell CD4 and coreceptor. HIV-1 variants differ in their requirements for CD4; viruses that can infect coreceptor-expressing cells that lack CD4 have been generated in the laboratory. These(More)
The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to the receptor, CD4. How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate viral-cell membrane fusion? The transition from the unliganded to the CD4-bound(More)
The cross-species transmission of retroviruses is limited by host restriction factors that exhibit inter-species diversity. For example, the TRIM5α proteins of Old World monkeys block the early, post-entry steps in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. We adapted an HIV-1 isolate to replicate in cells expressing TRIM5α(rh) from rhesus monkeys, an(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase are structurally related. However, the HBV enzyme has a protein priming activity absent in the HIV enzyme. Approved nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors of the HBV polymerase include lamivudine, adefovir, telbivudine, entecavir and tenofovir. Although most of them(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) entry into cells is mediated by a trimeric complex consisting of noncovalently associated gp120 (exterior) and gp41 (transmembrane) envelope glycoproteins. The binding of gp120 to receptors on the target cell alters the gp120-gp41 relationship and activates the membrane-fusing capacity of gp41. Interaction of gp120 with(More)
The envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) mediate viral entry and are also the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The gp160 envelope glycoprotein precursor undergoes proteolytic cleavage in the Golgi complex to produce the gp120 exterior glycoprotein and the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein, which remain associated(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), a multifunctional effector molecule that plays a central role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, regulates vascular tone and inhibits platelet and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. NO status is related to the endothelial function. Patients with hypertension have lower levels of NO, increased free radical production, higher(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fibrinolytic system by measurement of fibrinogen, plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in healthy normotensive subjects and in patients with essential hypertension. A group of 21 healthy normotensive subjects [age, 39.2 +/- 1.8 years; 8 males, 13(More)
Based on the predicted capacity to interact with membranes at the interface, we have found three regions in the ectodomain of the hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E2 (430-449, 543-560 and 603-624) with the ability to destabilize membranes. Three peptides corresponding to the sequence of these regions have been synthesized and their interaction with(More)