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Small bacteriophage Mu transposable elements containing the lac operon structural genes were constructed to facilitate the isolation and use of Mu insertions and lac gene fusions. These mini-Mu elements have selectable genes for either ampicillin or kanamycin resistance and can be used to form both transcriptional and translational lac gene fusions. Some of(More)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by the conversion of prion protein (PrP(C)) into an infectious isoform (PrP(Sc)). How this event leads to pathology is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that protein synthesis in neurons is enhanced via PrP(C) interaction with stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1). We(More)
The heterotrimeric eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 binds the initiator methionyl-tRNA in a GTP-dependent mode and delivers it to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. In the present study, we have identified amino acid residues in eIF2beta required for binding to eIF2gamma in yeast. Alteration of six residues in the central region of eIF2beta abolished this(More)
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) has been implicated in the selection of the AUG codon as the start site for eukaryotic translation initiation, since mutations in its three subunits in yeast that allow the recognition of a UUG codon by the anticodon of the initiator Met-tRNAMet have been identified. All such mutations in the beta subunit of(More)
Yeast Yih1 protein and its mammalian ortholog IMPACT, abundant in neurons, are inhibitors of Gcn2, a kinase involved in amino acid homeostasis, stress response, and memory formation. Like Gcn2, Yih1/IMPACT harbors an N-terminal RWD domain that mediates binding to the Gcn2 activator Gcn1. Yih1 competes with Gcn2 for Gcn1 binding, thus inhibiting Gcn2. Yih1(More)
In this work, we show extensive phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) occurring in the brain of mice subjected to 30 min of status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. eIF2alpha(P) immunoreactivity was detected in the hippocampal pyramidal layer CA1 and CA3, cortex layer V, thalamus and amygdala. After 2 h of(More)
The protein kinase Gcn2 is present in virtually all eukaryotes and is of increasing interest due to its involvement in a large array of crucial biological processes. Some of these are universally conserved from yeast to humans, such as coping with nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. In mammals, Gcn2 is important for e.g. long-term memory formation,(More)
Chagas' disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the unicellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is transmitted to humans by triatomine bugs where T. cruzi multiplies and differentiates in the digestive tract. The differentiation of proliferative and non-infective epimastigotes into infective metacyclic trypomastigotes(More)
Gir2 is an uncharacterized protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, containing a RWD/GI domain. In this work, we report the biophysical characterization of Gir2. His-tagged Gir2, expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, showed an abnormally slow migration on SDS-PAGE. The yeast expressed protein behaves similarly. Using mass spectrometry and peptide mass(More)
The eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosomal A-site during protein synthesis. To ensure a continuous supply of amino acids, cells harbor the kinase Gcn2 and its effector protein Gcn1. The ultimate signal for amino acid shortage is uncharged tRNAs. We have proposed a model for sensing starvation, in which Gcn1 and(More)