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Early during Gram-negative sepsis, excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause septic shock that is often followed by a state of immune paralysis characterized by the failure to mount adaptive immunity towards secondary microbial infections. Especially, the early mechanisms responsible for such immune hypo-responsiveness are unclear. Here, we(More)
The liver is known to induce tolerance rather than immunity through tolerogenic antigen presentation or elimination of effector T cells. In particular, hepatic dendritic cells (DC) are known to be little immunogenic for CD8 T cells. Here, we investigated whether this peculiar phenotype resulted from interaction with resident hepatic cell populations.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Dendritic cell activation through ligation of pattern recognition receptors leading to full functional maturation causes induction of CD8(+) T-cell immunity through increased delivery of costimulatory signals instead of tolerance. Here we investigate whether organ-resident antigen-presenting cells, such as liver sinusoidal endothelial(More)
CpG-rich oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN) bind to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and are used as powerful adjuvants for vaccination. Here we report that CpG-ODN not only act as immune stimulatory agents but can also induce strong immune suppression depending on the anatomical location of application. In agreement with the adjuvant effect, subcutaneous application of(More)
Inactivated orf virus (iORFV), strain D1701, is a potent immune modulator in various animal species. We recently demonstrated that iORFV induces strong antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections. In addition, we found D1701-mediated antifibrotic effects in different rat models of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we(More)
CCR2 is thought to recruit monocytes to sites of infection. Two subpopulations of murine blood monocytes differing in Gr1 and CCR2 expression have been described. The exact role of CCR2 in migration of CCR2(low)Gr1(low) and CCR2(high)Gr1(high) monocytes into nonlymphoid tissue is controversial. In this study, we have addressed this question in a murine(More)
Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) are increased in context of malignancies and their expansion can be correlated with higher disease burden and decreased survival. Initially, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been used as T-cell growth factor in clinical vaccination trials. In murine models, however, a role of IL-2 in development, differentiation, homeostasis, and(More)
After ingestion, oral antigens distribute systemically and provoke T cell stimulation outside the gastrointestinal tract. Within the liver, scavenger liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) eliminate blood-borne antigens and induce T cell tolerance. Here we investigated whether LSEC contribute to oral tolerance. Oral antigens were efficiently(More)
Localized abdominal surgery can lead to disruption of motility in the entire gastrointestinal tract (postoperative ileus). Intestinal macrophages produce mediators that paralyze myocytes, but it is unclear how the macrophages are activated, especially those in unmanipulated intestinal areas. Here we show that intestinal surgery activates intestinal(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms by which they control disease remain to be determined. This study demonstrates that expression of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) by DCs is required for EAE induction. CCR4(-/-) mice presented enhanced resistance to EAE associated(More)