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Excessive inflammation is considered as a critical factor in many human diseases, including cancer, obesity, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Compounds derived from botanic sources, such as phenolic compounds, have shown anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Recent data suggest that polyphenols can(More)
Estragole (ES) is a natural constituent of a number of plants (e.g. tarragon, sweet basil and sweet fennel) and their essential oils have been widely used in foodstuffs as flavouring agents. Several studies with oral, i.p. or s.c. administration to CD-1 and B6C3F1 mice have shown the carcinogenicity of ES. The 1-hydroxy metabolites are stronger(More)
It has been reported that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and that macrophages as well as other cells of the arterial wall can oxidize LDL in vitro, depending on the balance between intracellular prooxidant generation and antioxidant defense efficiency. Because of their possible beneficial role in the prevention of(More)
Polyphenols have been demonstrated to have clear antioxidant activities in vitro. However, in complex biological systems, they exhibit additional properties which are yet poorly understood. Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the normal embryonic development and for the maintenance(More)
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a main metabolite of anthocyanins, whose daily intake is much higher than that of other polyphenols. PCA has biological effects, e.g., it induces the antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme gene expression. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for PCA-induced over-expression of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance (IR) represents an independent risk factor for metabolic, cardiovascular, and neoplastic disorders. Preventing/attenuating IR is a major objective to be reached to preserve population health. Because many insulin-sensitizing drugs have shown unwanted side effects, active harmless compounds are sought after. Dietary anthocyanins(More)
The subacute toxicity studies reported up to now in rats and mice suggested that mice were less susceptible than rats to the toxicity of eucalyptol. In fact, after gavage, it was found toxic in male rats at doses higher than 600 mg/kg while no effect was seen in mice up to 1200 mg/kg. However, the limitations and the quality of the study do not allow the(More)
The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Extra virgin olive oil has been associated with a reduced incidence of risk factors for coronary heart disease also owing to the presence of antioxidant biophenols. This study compared the protective effects of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two biophenols greatly different in antioxidant power, on J774 A.1-mediated oxidation of LDL. (More)
BACKGROUND   Hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, hallmarks of the postprandial state, have been also associated with increased oxidative stress and lipoprotein oxidation contributing to vascular injury and atherosclerosis. However, the specific links among metabolic disorders, postprandial state, insulin resistance and oxidative stress(More)