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Excessive inflammation is considered as a critical factor in many human diseases, including cancer, obesity, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Compounds derived from botanic sources, such as phenolic compounds, have shown anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Recent data suggest that polyphenols can(More)
Estragole (ES) is a natural constituent of a number of plants (e.g. tarragon, sweet basil and sweet fennel) and their essential oils have been widely used in foodstuffs as flavouring agents. Several studies with oral, i.p. or s.c. administration to CD-1 and B6C3F1 mice have shown the carcinogenicity of ES. The 1-hydroxy metabolites are stronger(More)
It has been reported that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and that macrophages as well as other cells of the arterial wall can oxidize LDL in vitro, depending on the balance between intracellular prooxidant generation and antioxidant defense efficiency. Because of their possible beneficial role in the prevention of(More)
Polyphenols have been demonstrated to have clear antioxidant activities in vitro. However, in complex biological systems, they exhibit additional properties which are yet poorly understood. Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the normal embryonic development and for the maintenance(More)
Recent experimental evidence suggests that enterocyte apoptosis is greater than hitherto assumed and may be responsible for villous atrophy in coeliac disease. We have previously demonstrated that a small peptide (M.W. 1157.5 Da), identified as the sequence H(2)N-gln-gln-pro-gln-asp-ala-val-gln-pro-phe-COOH from durum wheat gliadin, is able to prevent K 562(More)
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a main metabolite of anthocyanins, whose daily intake is much higher than that of other polyphenols. PCA has biological effects, e.g., it induces the antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme gene expression. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for PCA-induced over-expression of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance (IR) represents an independent risk factor for metabolic, cardiovascular, and neoplastic disorders. Preventing/attenuating IR is a major objective to be reached to preserve population health. Because many insulin-sensitizing drugs have shown unwanted side effects, active harmless compounds are sought after. Dietary anthocyanins(More)
We investigated the mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic activity exerted by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in Caco-2 intestinal cells, a cell line which retains many morphological and enzymatic features typical of normal human enterocytes. We found that: (i) oxLDL induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by provoking first an increase in(More)
Methyleugenol (ME) is a natural constituent of the essential oils of a number of plants widely used in foodstuffs as flavouring agents. Its occurrence, routes of intake, and available information on toxicity, kinetics and metabolism are reviewed. In view of the carcinogenic potential of ME, the need to check its presence in food products with effective(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Extra virgin olive oil has been associated with a reduced incidence of risk factors for coronary heart disease also owing to the presence of antioxidant biophenols. This study compared the protective effects of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two biophenols greatly different in antioxidant power, on J774 A.1-mediated oxidation of LDL. (More)