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Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements(More)
Space sickness symptoms were observed by 4 specially trained observers on Spacelab-1. Three reported persistent symptoms, and vomited repeatedly during the first and/or second day of flight. Head movements on all axes were provocative, particularly in pitch and roll. Head acceleration data recorded from 2 symptomatic crewmen showed that after several hours(More)
Experiments on human spatial orientation were conducted on four crewmembers of Space Shuttle Spacelab Mission 1. This introductory paper presents the conceptual background of the project, the relationship among the experiments and their relevance to a “sensory reinterpretation hypothesis”. Detailed experiment procedures and results are presented in the(More)
Observations with three astronauts yielded two major findings. First, perceived self-motion during sinusoidal roll differed immediately postflight from preflight. Between 70 and 150 min after landing, roll was perceived primarily as linear translation. Secondly, more horizontal eye movement was elicited by roll stimulation immediately postflight relative to(More)
Ocular torsion (OT) was measured in human subjects during horizontal linear acceleration on a sled in the laboratory and when emerging from weightlessness during parabolic flights in NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Analysis of the frequency response of OT to sinusoidal horizontal oscillation on earth shows results consistent with constant tilt rate studies and with(More)
CD4+ T cells include a naive (CD4-, CD45RO-, CD29-, CD45RA+) as well as a memory subpopulation (CD4+, CD45RO+, CD29+, CD45RA-). These subpopulations represent different stages in T-cell development and function. Recently, it has been shown that inflammatory and neoplastic CD4+ T-cell infiltrates are dominated by the memory subpopulation, whereas both(More)
This paper describes initial experiments to determine the feasibility of recording functionally distinct neuroelectric signals from the surface of the rabbit's sciatic nerve. A cuff electrode assembly was constructed; it consisted of two planar arrays, each having four wires equally spaced around the circumference of the electrode. The electrode assembly(More)
This paper will describe the biomedical support aspects of humans in space with respect to the vestibular system. The vestibular system is thought to be the primary sensory system involved in the short-term effects of space motion sickness although there is increasing evidence that many factors play a role in this complex set of symptoms. There is the(More)
Prior to authorisation of plant protection products (PPP) according to Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 it must be ensured that products placed on the market will not impair the health of humans and animals if used appropriately and as intended. For safe use of pesticides, it is generally necessary to assign obligatory instructions for operators to comply with(More)
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