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Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic and its release is induced by stress. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the(More)
RATIONALE Genotype at the 5' promoter region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter has been implicated in moderating the effects of acute tryptophan depletion on neurocognitive functioning. Acute tryptophan depletion has been associated with the processing of fear-relevant cues, such as emotional expressions, but the effect of genotype at the 5-HTTLPR has(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and amygdala activation have been found in healthy, depressed, and anxious adults. This study explored these gene-brain associations in adolescents by examining predictive effects of serotonin transporter gene variants (S and L(G) allele carriers vs. L(A) allele(More)
Transient reductions in serotonin levels during tryptophan depletion (TD) are thought to impair reward processing in healthy volunteers, while another facet of the serotonergic system, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) short allele polymorphism, is implicated in augmented processing of aversive stimuli. We examined the impact and interactions of TD and(More)
Competitive polymerase chain reaction assays following reverse transcription have been developed for quantitative analysis of delta and mu opioid receptor gene expression. The assay was used to obtain quantitative measurements of mu and delta opioid receptor expression levels in different brain regions and sensory and sympathetic ganglia in the rat. The(More)
A polymorphism of the human Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene that produces a valine-to-methionine substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) is linked to adult anxiety and mood disorders, possibly through effects on brain circuitry function. Associations between BDNF gene variants and brain activity have not been explored in anxious and depressed(More)
The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Animal studies have implicated GAL in alcohol abuse and anxiety: chronic ethanol intake increases hypothalamic GAL mRNA; high levels of stress increase GAL release in the central amygdala. The coding sequence of the galanin gene, GAL, is highly conserved and a functional(More)
The opioid-like neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor (NOP) are expressed in the substantia nigra (SN), a brain area containing dopamine neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Endogenous N/OFQ facilitates nigral glutamate release and inhibits nigrostriatal dopamine transmission and motor behavior. Here, we present evidence(More)
The regulation of mu- (MOR) and delta-opioid receptor (DOR) after chronic cocaine administration has been studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 3 days with saline and cocaine (50 mg/kg/day) delivered by osmotic minipump. Expression of MOR and DOR mRNA in olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, and caudate-putamen (caudal and rostral parts) was(More)