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Prions are infectious particles causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). They consist, at least in part, of an isoform (PrPSc) of the ubiquitous cellular prion protein (PrPC). Conformational differences between PrPC and PrPSc are evident from increased beta-sheet content and protease resistance in PrPSc. Here we describe a monoclonal(More)
From immunizations of mice with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing residues 724-781 of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit GluR1-flop, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed that differed widely in their ranges of specificity. In immunocytochemical and immunoblotting assays performed on(More)
Maintenance of dendritic spines, the postsynaptic elements of most glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system, requires continued activation of AMPA receptors. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, chronic blockade of AMPA receptors for 14 days induces a substantial loss of dendritic spines on CA1 pyramidal neurons. Here, using serial section(More)
Permafrost represents a largely understudied genetic resource. Thawing of permafrost with global warming will not only promote microbial carbon turnover with direct feedback on greenhouse gases, but also unlock an unknown microbial diversity. Pioneering metagenomic efforts have shed light on the permafrost microbiome in polar regions, but temperate mountain(More)
The impact of climate change on the soil microbiome potentially alters the biogeochemical cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. In semi-arid environments, water availability is a major constraint on biogeochemical cycles due to the combination of high summer temperatures and low rainfall. Here, we explored how 10 years of irrigation of a water-limited pine(More)
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