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The neuronal cell adhesion molecule axonin-1 is composed of six immunoglobulin and four fibronectin type III domains. Axonin-1 promotes neurite outgrowth, when presented as a substratum for neurons in vitro, via a neuronal receptor that has been identified as the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, NgCAM, based on the blocking effect of polyclonal(More)
The axonal surface glycoproteins neuronglia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM) and axonin-1 promote cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth and fasciculation, and are involved in growth cone guidance. A direct binding between NgCAM and axonin-1 has been demonstrated using isolated molecules conjugated to the surface of fluorescent microspheres. By expressing(More)
The axonal surface glycoprotein axonin-1, which occurs both as a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound form and a secreted form, promotes neurite outgrowth and is thought to be involved in axon-guidance mechanisms in the developing nervous system. Recently, we have demonstrated that the neurite-outgrowth-promoting activity of axonin-1,(More)
During the initial stage of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation, nerve-derived agrin cooperates with muscle-autonomous mechanisms in the organization and stabilization of a plaque-like postsynaptic specialization at the site of nerve-muscle contact. Subsequent NMJ maturation to the characteristic pretzel-like appearance requires extensive structural(More)
Etiology and pathogenesis of sarcopenia, the progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging, are still poorly understood. We recently found that overexpression of the neural serine protease neurotrypsin in motoneurons resulted in the degeneration of their neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) within days. Therefore, we wondered(More)
BACKGROUND Growth cones at the tips of growing axons move along predetermined pathways to establish synaptic connections between neurons and their distant targets. To establish their orientation, growth cones continuously sample for, and respond to, guidance information provided by cell surfaces and the extracellular matrix. To identify specific guidance(More)
Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin/fibronectin type III family on axons have been implicated in promotion of neurite outgrowth, fasciculation, and the mediation of specific cell adhesion. The present study demonstrates that two of these molecules on dorsal root ganglion neurons are associated with distinct protein kinases, axonin-1 with(More)
The synaptic serine protease neurotrypsin is considered to be essential for the establishment and maintenance of cognitive brain functions, because humans lacking functional neurotrypsin suffer from severe mental retardation. Neurotrypsin cleaves agrin at two homologous sites, liberating a 90-kDa and a C-terminal 22-kDa fragment from the N-terminal moiety(More)
The synaptic serine protease neurotrypsin is essential for cognitive function, as its deficiency in humans results in severe mental retardation. Recently, we demonstrated the activity-dependent release of neurotrypsin from presynaptic terminals and proteolytical cleavage of agrin at the synapse. Here we show that the activity-dependent formation of(More)
The synaptic serine protease neurotrypsin is thought to be important for adaptive synaptic processes required for cognitive functions, because humans deficient in neurotrypsin suffer from severe mental retardation. In the present study, we describe the biochemical characterization of neurotrypsin and its so far unique substrate agrin. In cell culture(More)