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This review summarizes the current knowledge of characterized neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF) which serves as paradigmatic example when studying novel molecules. Special consideration is given to the function of neurotrophic factors in the adult and aging brain. Strategies are discussed for the eventual development of(More)
Chronic exposure of brain neurons to nerve growth factor in vitro and in vivo results in increased levels of the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA. In contrast, in the present study, we have found that chronic exposure of rat embryonic cortical neurons to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) leads to a pronounced reduction of the levels of protein and(More)
In search of the possible involvement of neurotrophic factors in inherited neurological disease, we examined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNA expression patterns in the ataxic mutant mouse stargazer (stg). Using in situ hybridization, we found a selective and near total reduction in BDNF(More)
To study the selectivity of neurotrophic actions in the brain, we analyzed the actions of several known growth factors on septal cholinergic, pontine cholinergic, and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in culture. Similar to nerve growth factor (NGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulated choline acetyltransferase activity in septal cultures. In(More)
Improvement of the cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by intracerebral application of nerve growth factor (NGF) serves as a paradigmatic example for a novel approach to the treatment of neurodegeneration. The first part of this paper presents and discusses experiments which were performed in our laboratory to study the NGF receptor response(More)
Severe disruption of certain cholinergic pathways is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease. Attempts to establish animal models by interfering with cholinergic function have not been very successful. We now present data which show a substantial and progressive replacement of free and phospholipid-bound choline by the novel choline isostere(More)
PURPOSE Recent studies show that exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can promote retinal ganglion cell survival in vivo and in vitro. BDNF is expressed by a subpopulation of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). To investigate whether endogenous BDNF may play a role in neuronal protection after ganglion cell trauma, BDNF expression in the(More)
In the spontaneous ataxic mutant mouse stargazer, there is a selective reduction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the cerebellum. BDNF protein levels in the cerebellum are reduced by 70%. Despite normal levels of full-length and truncated TrkB receptor, constitutive and neurotrophin-4/5-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was(More)
Several recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the tumour-suppressor gene p53 increases within the nervous system after injury. In various cell lines wild-type-p53, induced by DNA damage, has been shown to function to halt cell-cycle progression and under certain circumstances to induce programmed-cell death or apoptosis. Since wild type-p53(More)
Excess neuronal activity upregulates the expression of two neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adult hippocampus. Nerve growth factor has been shown to contribute the induction of aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, however the role of prolonged(More)