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Root hairs develop as long extensions from root epidermal cells. After the formation of an initial bulge at the distal end of the epidermal cell, the root hair structure elongates by tip growth. Because root hairs are not surrounded by other cells, root hair formation provides an excellent system for studying the highly complex process of plant cell growth.(More)
Knowledge of the intracellular distribution of Cd in leaves is necessary in order to understand the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens. Ganges and Prayon, two ecotypes accumulating Cd to different levels, were grown in nutrient medium containing varying concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 microM) of Cd. Several different approaches(More)
Root systems of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and poplar (Populus tremula) were long-term exposed to metal-contaminated soils in open-top chambers to investigate the accumulation of the heavy metals in the fine roots and to assess the plants suitability for phytostabilisation. The heavy metals from the contaminated soil accumulated in the fine roots about(More)
Glacier forefield chronosequences, initially composed of barren substrate after glacier retreat, are ideal locations to study primary microbial colonization and succession in a natural environment. We characterized the structure and composition of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in exposed rock substrates along the Damma glacier forefield in(More)
The mechanisms enabling plants to tolerate high concentrations of available Cu in their rhizosphere are still poorly understood. To better understand the mechanisms involved, Lupinus albus L. (white lupin) was grown over 40 days in a hydroponic system compelling roots to develop under sterile conditions in the presence of a nutrient solution containing 0.5,(More)
Several bacterial strains isolated from granitic rock material in front of the Damma glacier (Central Swiss Alps) were shown (i) to grow in the presence of granite powder and a glucose-NH(4)Cl minimal medium without additional macro- or micronutrients and (ii) to produce weathering-associated agents. In particular, four bacterial isolates (one isolate each(More)
Drought is expected to become an increasingly important factor limiting tree growth caused by climate change. Two divergent clones of Populus nigra (58-861 and Poli) originating from contrasting environments were subjected to water limitation (WL) to elucidate whether they differ in tolerance to drought, which mechanisms to avoid stress they exhibit and(More)
RT-qPCR is a powerful tool for analysing gene expression. It depends on measuring the increase in fluorescence emitted by a DNA-specific dye during the PCR reaction. For relative quantification, where the expression of a target gene is measured in relation to one or multiple reference genes, various mathematical approaches are published. The results of(More)
Published chronic toxicity data for Hg(II) added to soils were assembled and evaluated to produce a data set comprising 52 chronic end-points, five each for plants and invertebrates and 42 for microbes. With end-points expressed in terms of added soil Hg(II) contents, Critical Limits were derived from the 5th percentiles of species sensitivity(More)
Norway spruce seedlings colonized with Hebeloma crustuliniforme were grown in growth pouches. After formation of ectomycorrhizas, the seedlings were exposed to Al or the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni, or Zn at various concentrations for 5 weeks to estimate the detection limits of metals with X-ray microanalysis in the cryo-scanning electron microscope. When the(More)