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Cell fate in the developing eye is determined by a cascade of inductive interactions. In this process, the sevenless protein--a receptor tyrosine kinase--is required for the specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell fate. We have constructed a gain-of-function sevenless mutation (SevS11) by overexpressing a truncated sevenless protein in the cells where(More)
Early in Drosophila embryogenesis, gap gene products directly repress transcription of homeotic (HOX) genes and thereby delimit HOX expression domains. Subsequently, Polycomb-group proteins maintain this repression. Currently, there is no known molecular link between gap and Polycomb-group proteins. Here, dMi-2 is identified as a protein that binds to a(More)
Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) is a global second messenger controlling motility and adhesion in bacterial cells. Synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE), respectively. Whereas the DGC activity has recently been assigned to the widespread GGDEF domain, the enzymatic(More)
Cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate is a bacterial second messenger that has been implicated in biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in their animal host. Although the enzymes responsible for the regulation of cellular levels of c-di-GMP, diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases, have been identified(More)
Caulobacter crescentus is a model organism for the integrated circuitry that runs a bacterial cell cycle. Full discovery of its essential genome, including non-coding, regulatory and coding elements, is a prerequisite for understanding the complete regulatory network of a bacterial cell. Using hyper-saturated transposon mutagenesis coupled with(More)
The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates cellular motility and the synthesis of organelles and molecules that promote adhesion to a variety of biological and nonbiological surfaces. These properties likely require tight spatial and temporal regulation of c-di-GMP concentration. We have developed genetically(More)
Bacterial cells are highly organized with many protein complexes and DNA loci dynamically positioned to distinct subcellular sites over the course of a cell cycle. Such dynamic protein localization is essential for polar organelle development, establishment of asymmetry, and chromosome replication during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. We used a(More)
Silencers from the Drosophila homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) require hunchback (hb) and Polycomb (Pc) to suppress the activity of embryonic enhancers outside the Ubx domain. Embryonic silencing is initiated by hb protein which binds to the silencers to repress Ubx, thereby defining the Ubx domain. Here, we study silencing during subsequent development by(More)
The significance of various antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi was studied by Western blot (immunoblot) by using 578 human serum samples. The proteins regularly detected by using samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis were those with bands with molecular masses of 94, 83, 75, 66, 60, 55, 46, 41, 39, 34, 31, 29, 22, and 17 kDa. The detectable(More)
Bacteria are able to switch between two mutually exclusive lifestyles, motile single cells and sedentary multicellular communities that colonize surfaces. These behavioral changes contribute to an increased fitness in structured environments and are controlled by the ubiquitous bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). In(More)