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Putative antifungal peptide encoding genes containing Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein (PAF) characteristic amino acid motifs were identified in 15 Fusarium isolates, representing 10 species. Based on the predicted sequences of mature peptides, discrepancy in one, two or three amino acids was observed between them. Phylogenetic investigations(More)
Ochratoxins are polyketide derived fungal secondary metabolites with nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, and carcinogenic properties. Ochratoxin-producing fungi may contaminate agricultural products in the field (preharvest spoilage), during storage (postharvest spoilage), or during processing. Ochratoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses a(More)
Fungicide application is a key factor in the control of mycotoxin contamination in the harvested wheat grain. However, the practical results are often disappointing. In 2000-2004, 2006-2008 and 2007 and 2008, three experiments were made to test the efficacy of fungicide control on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in wheat and to find ways to improve control of(More)
The mammalian liver consists of hexagon-shaped lobules that are radially polarized by blood flow and morphogens. Key liver genes have been shown to be differentially expressed along the lobule axis, a phenomenon termed zonation, but a detailed genome-wide reconstruction of this spatial division of labour has not been achieved. Here we measure the entire(More)
Tissue stem cells produce a constant flux of differentiated cells with distinct proportions. Here, we show that stem cells in colonic crypts differentiate early to form precisely 1:3 ratio of secretory to absorptive cells. This precision is surprising, as there are only eight stem cells making irreversible fate decisions, and so large stochastic effects of(More)
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