Basudha Khanal

Learn More
Control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is being challenged by the emergence of natural resistance against the first line of treatment, pentavalent antimonials [Sb(V)]. An insight into the mechanism of natural Sb(V) resistance is required for the development of efficient strategies to monitor the emergence and spreading of Sb(V) resistance in countries where(More)
Four thousand and seventy eight cases of snakebite, occurring between January and December 2000, were analysed for clinical and epidemiological features. Cases of about 379 had features of envenoming and 81 died. All the victims with systemic envenoming had neurotoxicity. No case with coagulopathy was recorded. Snakebite was more frequent between the ages(More)
This study examined 215 samples of soil from burrows of rats, other sites in bamboo plantations in different parts of India and Nepal by dilution plating and mouse passage technique for occurrence of Penicillium marneffei and other pathogenic fungi. None of the samples including 25 collected from the burrows of a bamboo rat (Cannomys badius) known to be a(More)
In most of the Indian subcontinent, the first line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is sodium stibogluconate (SSG), an antimonial drug, but the efficacy of the drug varies according to region. We aimed to characterize the in vitro antimony susceptibility of clinical isolates of Nepalese VL patients, and to correlate this in vitro parasite phenotype(More)
AIMS To identify the common bacterial and fungal isolates from corneal ulcers and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), eastern Nepal. Culture and direct microscopic correlation and reliability were also compared. METHODS All patients(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal. DESIGN Paired cluster randomised controlled trial designed to detect a 50% reduction in incidence of Leishmania donovani infection. SETTING Villages in Muzaffarpur district(More)
Antimonial (sodium stibogluconate, SSG) resistance and differentiation have been shown to be closely linked in Leishmania donovani, with SSG-resistant strains showing an increased capacity to generate infectious (metacyclic) forms. This is the first untargeted LC-MS metabolomics study which integrated both phenomena in one experimental design and provided(More)
We report on two years of Japanese encephalitis (JE) surveillance in Nepal and the implications for a national immunization strategy. From May 2004 to April 2006, 4,652 patients with encephalitis were evaluated. A serum or cerebrospinal fluid specimen was collected from 3198 (69%) patients of which 1,035 (32%) were positive by Japanese encephalitis IgM(More)
On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007-February 2008), blood was collected from(More)
INTRODUCTION Asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. We assessed the risk of progression from infection to disease as a function of DAT and rK39 serological titers. METHODS We used available data on four cohorts from villages in India and(More)