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The balance between excitation and inhibition in the cortex is crucial in determining sensory processing. Because the amount of excitation varies, maintaining this balance is a dynamic process; yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We show here that the activity of even a single layer 2/3 pyramidal cell in the somatosensory cortex of the rat(More)
Neurons recruited for local computations exhibit rhythmic activity at gamma frequencies. The amplitude and frequency of these oscillations are continuously modulated depending on stimulus and behavioral state. This modulation is believed to crucially control information flow across cortical areas. Here we report that in the rat hippocampus gamma oscillation(More)
The response of cortical neurons to a sensory stimulus is shaped by the network in which they are embedded. Here we establish a role of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells, a large class of inhibitory neurons that target the soma and perisomatic compartments of pyramidal cells, in controlling cortical responses. By bidirectionally manipulating PV cell(More)
The cortex is sensitive to weak stimuli, but responds to stronger inputs without saturating. The mechanisms that enable this wide range of operation are not fully understood. We found that the amplitude of excitatory synaptic currents necessary to fire rodent pyramidal cells, the threshold excitatory current, increased with stimulus strength. Consequently,(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion alters neuronal activity in the direct and indirect pathways and leads to increased synchrony in the basal ganglia network. However, the origins of these changes remain elusive. Because GABAergic interneurons regulate activity of projection neurons and promote neuronal synchrony, we recorded from pairs of(More)
The relationship between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio), two opposing forces in the mammalian cerebral cortex, affects many cortical functions such as feature selectivity and gain. Individual pyramidal cells show stable E/I ratios in time despite fluctuating cortical activity levels. This is because when excitation increases, inhibition(More)
Somatic inhibition, which is critical for determining the spike output of principal cells, is mediated by two physiologically distinct classes of GABAergic interneurons called basket cells. In the hippocampus, despite both targeting the somatic membrane of CA1 pyramidal cells, these two classes of basket cells are active at different times. Differential(More)
The ability to estimate the passage of time is essential for adaptive behavior in complex environments. Yet, it is not known how the brain encodes time over the durations necessary to explain animal behavior. Under temporally structured reinforcement schedules, animals tend to develop temporally structured behavior, and interval timing has been suggested to(More)
The design of modern scientific experiments requires the control and monitoring of many different data streams. However, the serial execution of programming instructions in a computer makes it a challenge to develop software that can deal with the asynchronous, parallel nature of scientific data. Here we present Bonsai, a modular, high-performance,(More)