Bashir Ahmad

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(GIS) is a collection of tools that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that are linked to geographical locations. GIS plays an essential role in wide range of areas and is extensively adopted nowadays. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, hardware, software and data. GIS is commonly used as a(More)
Congestion in network occurs due to exceed in aggregate demand as compared to the accessible capacity of the resources. Network congestion will increase as network speed increases and new effective congestion control methods are needed, especially to handle "bursty" traffic of today's very high speed networks. Since late 90's numerous schemes i.e. [1]-[10](More)
Information Support Systems (ISS) are computer technology/network support systems that interactively support the information processing mechanisms for individuals and groups in life, public, and private organizations, and other entities. With the increasing use of technology in modern times, there is a growing requirement of Information Support Systems for(More)
From the preliminary stage of software engineering, selection of appropriate enforcement of standards remained a challenge for stakeholders during entire cycle of software development, but it can lead to reduce the efforts desired for software maintenance phase. Corrective maintenance is the reactive modification of a software product performed after(More)
OBJECTIVES To report on six independent and isolated cases demonstrating thumb aplasia as an essentially limb-specific phenotype. METHODS The subjects were ascertained during 2011-2013 from six different geographic regions of Pakistan, and underwent detailed clinical and phenotypic examination. RESULTS The affected arms of patients had complete absence(More)
Designing and analysis of test cases is a challenging tasks for tester roles especially those who are related to test the structure of program. Recently, Programmers are showing valuable trend towards the implementation of recursive modules in a program structure. In testing phase of software development life cycle, test cases help the tester to test the(More)
It has been observed that with ever changing technologies need for different software methodologies also evolved. Different methodologies are actually developed to cater the needs of different software development technologies. These methodologies are so technology specific that it becomes a hazard whenever these are applied as generic methodologies for all(More)
RUP is based on UP and OOP methodology in order to develop an application whose scope spans to enterprise level but it is labeled as a immature and disorganize development as it involves rework, provided any shortcomings are found in the accomplished phases. Moreover it is observed that risk identification and resolution is not properly handled in RUP as(More)
The present study was conducted to find out the ethambutol resistance pattern of indigenous isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Tuberculosis diagnosed human patients. A total of 172 specimens were collected from six different sources and comprised of 84.9% sputum, 10.5% pus and 4.7% bronchial washings. There were 70.9% males and 29.1% females with(More)