Bas van Leeuwen

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To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions seriously impeded calf blood flow. Consequently, blood flow(More)
A procedure was developed that enables measurement of rapid variations in calf blood flow during voluntary rhythmic contraction of the calf muscles in supine, sitting, and standing positions. During the exercise, maximum blood velocity is measured by Doppler ultrasound equipment in the popliteal artery. The Doppler signals are calibrated by plethysmography(More)
A calf ergometer is presented that can be used for both static and dynamic exercise in supine, sitting or standing position. During exercise each foot is fixed firmly to a pedal. During dynamic exercise the foot pedal can rotate through an angle which can be varied from 5 to 30 degrees. External work is performed only during plantar flexion. The amount of(More)
The study of heights provides a promising approach to a better understanding of the biological welfare of countries and regions for which conventional economic data are relatively sparse. This paper is based on a dataset previously unexploited: the individual records of nearly 10,000 Indonesian men conscripted into the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army(More)
The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is(More)
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