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Effectus theory is a new branch of categorical logic that aims to capture the essentials of quantum logic, with probabilistic and Boolean logic as special cases. Predicates in effectus theory are not subobjects having a Heyting algebra structure, like in topos theory, but 'characteristic' functions , forming effect algebras. Such effect algebras are… (More)

State spaces in probabilistic and quantum computation are convex sets, that is, Eilenberg–Moore algebras of the distribution monad. This article studies some computationally relevant properties of convex sets. We introduce the term effectus for a base category with suitable coproducts (so that predicates, as arrows of the shape X → 1 + 1, form effect… (More)

Quotients and comprehension are fundamental mathematical constructions that can be described via adjunctions in categorical logic. This paper reveals that quotients and comprehension are related to measurement, not only in quantum logic, but also in probabilistic and classical logic. This relation is presented by a long series of examples, some of them… (More)

At the heart of the Conway-Kochen Free Will Theorem and Kochen and Specker’s argument against non-contextual hidden variable theories is the existence of a Kochen-Specker (KS) system: a set of points on the sphere that has no {0,1}-coloring such that at most one of two orthogonal points are colored 1 and of three pairwise orthogonal points exactly one is… (More)

At the heart of the Conway-Kochen Free Will Theorem and Kochen and Specker's argument against non-contextual hidden variable theories is the existence of a Kochen-Specker (KS) system: a set of points on the sphere that has no {0, 1}-coloring such that at most one of two orthogonal points are colored 1 and of three pairwise orthogonal points exactly one is… (More)

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