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Optimal immunity to microorganisms depends upon the regulated death of clonally expanded effector cells and the survival of a cohort of cells that become memory cells. After activation of naive T cells, CD44, a widely expressed receptor for extracellular matrix components, is upregulated. High expression of CD44 remains on memory cells and despite its wide(More)
The early inflammatory response to influenza virus infection contributes to severe lung disease and continues to pose a serious threat to human health. The mechanisms by which neutrophils gain entry to the respiratory tract and their role during pathogenesis remain unclear. Here, we report that neutrophils significantly contributed to morbidity in a(More)
Despite the widespread use of the cell-surface receptor CD44 as a marker for antigen (Ag)-experienced, effector and memory T cells, surprisingly little is known regarding its function on these cells. The best-established function of CD44 is the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. As such, the interactions of CD44, primarily with its major ligand, the(More)
T cell migration is crucial for an effective adaptive immune response to invading pathogens. Naive and memory T cells encounter pathogen antigens, become activated, and differentiate into effector cells in secondary lymphoid tissues, and then migrate to the site(s) of infection where they exert effector activities that control and eliminate pathogens. To(More)
CD44 is a widely-expressed adhesion receptor that is associated with diverse biological processes involving migrating cells, including inflammation, angiogenesis, bone metabolism and wound healing. In the immune system, CD44 is upregulated after activation of naive T lymphocytes during their responses against invading microbes. Once an infection is cleared,(More)
Type 1 diabetes is a CD4 cell-dependent disease that results from destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in pancreatic islets. An ideal therapy would reverse diabetes shortly after onset when islet function in not yet fully ablated, and also prevent re-emergence of disease through the generation of memory cells that control the autoimmune response. In(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets. There is an immediate need to restore both β-cell function and immune tolerance to control disease progression and ultimately cure T1D. Currently, there is no effective treatment strategy to restore glucose regulation in patients with T1D.(More)
Successful replication of the influenza A virus requires both viral proteins and host cellular factors. In this study we used a cellular assay to screen for small molecules capable of interfering with any of such necessary viral or cellular components. We used an established reporter assay to assess influenza viral replication by monitoring the activity of(More)
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