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Background The Standards for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with COPD document 2004 updates the position papers on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) published by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) in 1995 [1, 2]. Both societies felt the need to update the previous documents due to the(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE). METHODS We studied 2164 clinically stable COPD patients, 337 smokers with normal lung function and 245 never(More)
RATIONALE Accurate prediction of mortality helps select patients for interventions aimed at improving outcome. OBJECTIVES Because chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that addition of inflammatory biomarkers to established predictive factors will improve accuracy. METHODS A total of(More)
BACKGROUND Because chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition, the identification of specific clinical phenotypes is key to developing more effective therapies. To explore if the persistence of systemic inflammation is associated with poor clinical outcomes in COPD we assessed patients recruited to the well-characterized(More)
The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) is used to evaluate the functional capacity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The change in 6MWD over time and its correlation with changes in spirometry and survival are unclear. Patients (n=198) with severe COPD and 41 age-matched controls were followed for 2 yrs, and anthropometrics, spirometry,(More)
The mechanism by which inhaled smoke causes the anatomic lesions and physiologic impairment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains unknown. We used high-density microarrays to measure gene expression in severely emphysematous lung tissue removed from smokers at lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and normal or mildly emphysematous lung tissue(More)
H+ accumulation at the sarcolemma is believed to play a key role in determining the electrophysiological correlates of fatigue. This paper describes an in vitro method to externally manipulate muscle pH while measuring the resultant effect on surface-detected median frequency (MDF) and conduction velocity (CV) parameters. Hamster muscle diaphragm strips (n(More)
BACKGROUND The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are well established. However, there are few data for treatment in the early stages of the disease. We examined the effect of tiotropium on outcomes in a large subgroup of patients with moderate COPD. METHODS The Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of inhaled salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate (SFC) in patients with severe or very severe COPD is well documented. However, there are only limited data about the influence of GOLD severity staging on the effectiveness of SFC, particularly in patients with milder disease. METHODS TORCH was a 3-year, double-blind,(More)